Cultural Aspects of Childbearing and Childrearing

Selected and Compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Abel, S., Park, J., Tipene-Leach, D., Finau, S., & Lennan, M. (2001). Infant care practices in New Zealand: A cross-cultural qualitative study. Social Science & Medicine, 53(9), 1135-1148.

Abou-Saleh, M. (1997). Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 8(1), 1-5.

Abuidhail, J. & Fleming, V. (2007). Beliefs and practices of postpartum infant care: Review if different cultures. British Journal of Midwifery, 15(7), 418-421.
Acevedo, M. C. (2000). The role of acculturation in explaining ethnic differences in the prenatal health-risk behaviors, mental health, and parenting beliefs of Mexican American and European American at-risk women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(1), 111-127.
Agnew, T. (1997). A multicultural perspective of breastfeeding in Canada. (36 pages). Retrieved September 3, 2008, from
Ahlqvist, M., & Wirfalt, E. (2000). Beliefs concerning dietary practices during pregnancy and lactation: A qualitative study among Iranian women residing in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 14(2), 105-111.

Al-Rawahi, S., & Shart-Hopko, N. (2002). The birth spacing initiative in Oman. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 9(2), 23-26.

Alcalay, R. (1992-1993). Perceptions about prenatal care among health providers and Mexican-American community women: An explanatory study. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 13, 107-118.
Alcalay, R., Ghee, A., et al. (1993). Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women. Public Health Reports, 108(3), 354-362.
Almoroth, S., & Latham, M. C. (1982). Breast feeding practices in rural Jamaica. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 28(3), 103-109.
Amankawa, L. C. (2003). Postpartum depression, culture and African-American women. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(1), 23-29.
American Academy of Pediatricians. (2004). Transcultural aspects of perinatal health care. United States: National Perinatal Association.
Banks, M. J., & Benchot, R., (2001). Unique aspects of nursing care for Amish children. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 26(4), 192-196.
Barcelona-de-Mendoza, V. (2001). Culturally appropriate care for pregnant Latina women who are victims of domestic violence. Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 30(6), 579-588.
Bashiri, N., & Spielvogel, A. M. (1999). Postpartum depression: A cross-cultural perspective. Primary Care Update for OB/GYNS, 6(3), 82-87.
Bastien, A. (2004). Placental rituals, placental medicine. Midwifery Today with International Midwife, 71, 54-55.

Baumslag, N. (1987). Breast feeding: Cultural practices and variations. Advances in International Maternal and Child Health, 7, 36-50.

Beine, K., Fullerton, J., Palinkas, L., & Anders, B. (1995). Conceptions of prenatal care among Somali women in San Diego. Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 40(4), 376-381.
Bender, D. E., Harbour,C., Thorp, J., & Morris, P. (2001). Tell me what you mean by si: Perceptions of quality of parental care among immigrant Latina women. Qualitative Health Research, 11(6), 780-94.

Berggren, V., Salam, G. A., Bergstrom, S., Johansson, E., & Edberg, A. (2004). An explorative study of Sudanese midwives' motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth. Midwifery, 20(4), 299-311.

Berry, A. B. (1999). Mexican American women's expressions of the meaning of culturally congruent prenatal care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(3), 203-212.
Bezner Kerr, R., Dakishoni, L., Shumba, L., Msachi, R., & Chirwa, M. (2008). "We grandmothers know plenty": Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and the multifaceted role of grandmothers in Malawi. Social Science and Medicine, 66(5), 1095-1105.
Bhagat, R., Johnson, J., Grewal, S., Pandher, P., Wuong, E., & Triolet, K. (2002). Mobilizing the community to address the prenatal health needs of immigrant Punjabi women. Public Health Nursing, 19(3), 209-214.
Birdsong, W. (1998). The placenta and cultural values. Western Journal of Medicine, 168(3), 190-193.
Bjorkman La Du, E. (1985). Childbirth care for Hmong families. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 10(6), 382-385.

Bodo, K., & Gibson, N. (1999). Childbirth customs in Vietnamese traditions. Canadian Family Physician, 45, 690-692, 695-697.

Boersma, E. R. (1985). Perinatal care in six eastern Caribbean countries. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, 19(1), 45-60.
Boyaciogiu, A.O. & Turkmen, A. (2008). Social and cultural dimensions of pregnancy and childbirth in Eastern Turkey. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 10(3), 277-285.
Bracht, M., Kandankery, A., Nodwell, S., & Stade, B. (2002). Cultural differences and parental responses to the preterm infant at risk: Strategies for supporting families. Neonatal Network, 21(6), 31-38.
Broach, J., & Newton, N. (1988). Food and beverages in labor. Part II: The effects of cessation of oral intake during labor. Birth, 15(2), 88-92.
Broach, J., & Newton, N. (1988). Food and beverages in labor. Part I: Cross-cultural and historical practices. Birth, 15(2), 81-85.
Brown, M. S. (1976). A cross-cultural look at pregnancy, labor, and delivery. JOGN Nursing: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 5(5), 35-38.
Brown, S., & Lumley, J. (1994). Satisfaction with care in labor and birth: A survey of 790 Australian women. Birth, 21(1), 4-13.
Brown, S., & Lumley, J. (1998). Changing childbirth: Lessons from an Australian survey of 1336 women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 105(2), 143-155.
Buckley, S. J. (2003). Lotus birth: A ritual for our times. Midwifery Today with International Midwife, 67, 36-38.

Burford, G. (2006, Summer). One birth, two worlds: A personal encounter with "traditional" and "modern" maternal health care in northern Tanzania. Midwifery Today With International Midwife, 78, 56-59.

Buriel, R. (1993). Childrearing orientation in Mexican American families: The influence of generation and sociocultural factors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55(4), 987-1000.
Burk, M. E., Wieser, P. C., et al. (1995). Cultural beliefs and health behaviors of pregnant Mexican-American women: Implications for primary care. ANS: Advances in Nursing Science, 17(4), 37-52.
California State Department of Health Services Revision of Policy Regarding Treatment of Waste Placentas. (1997). Sacramento, CA: Health and Welfare Agency.
Callister, L. C. (1992). The meaning of the childbirth experience to the Mormon woman. Journal of Perinatal Education, 1(1), 50-57.

Callister, L. C. (1995). Cultural meanings of childbirth. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 24(3), 327-331.

Callister, L. C. (2001). Culturally competent care of women and newborns: Knowledge, attitude, and skills. JOGN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 30(2), 209-215.

Callister, L. C. (2004). Making meaning: women's birth narratives. JOGN Nursing: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 33(4), 508-518.


Callister, L. C., & Vega, R. (1998). Giving birth: Guatemalan women's voices. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 27(3), 289-295.


Callister, L. C., Khalaf, I., Semenic, S., Kartchner, R., & Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K. (2003). The pain of childbirth: Perceptions of culturally diverse women. Pain Management Nursing, 4(4), 145-154.


Callister, L. C., Lauri, S., & Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K. (2000). A description of birth in Finland. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 25(3), 146-150.


Callister, L. C., Semenic, S., & Foster, J. C. (1999). Cultural/spiritual meanings of childbirth: Orthodox Jewish and Mormon women. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(3), 280-295.


Callister, L. C., Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K., & Lauri S. (1996). Cultural perceptions of childbirth: A cross-cultural comparison of childbearing women. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1(1), 66-78.


Callister, L. C., Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K., & Lauri, S. (2001). Giving birth: Perceptions of Finnish childbearing women. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 26(1), 28-32.

Camey, X. C., Barrios, C. G., Guerrero, X. R., Nunez-Urquiza, R. M., Hernandez, D. G., & Glass, A. L. (1996). Traditional birth attendants in Mexico: Advantage and disadvantages of care for normal deliveries. Social Science and Medicine, 43(2), 199-207.
Carangelo, A. (2001, winter). Italian-American women and changing childbirth practices. Midwifery Today, 60, 48-51.

Cardini, F., & Weixin, H. (1998). Moxibustion for correction of breech presentation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(18), 1580-1584.


Cardini, F., et al. (2005). A randomised controlled trial of moxibustion for breech presentation. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112(6), 743-747.

Carolan, M. (2008). Antenatal care perceptions of pregnant African women attending maternity services in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery. Retrieved November 3, 2008 from doi:10.1016/j.midw.2008.03.005
Cecil, R. (1996). The anthropology of pregnancy loss: Comparative studies in miscarriage, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Washington, DC: Berg.
Chalmers, B. & Quliyeva, D. (2004). A report of women's birth experiences in Baku, Azerbaijan. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 25(1), 3-14.

Chalmers, B. (1996). Cross-cultural comparisons of birthing: Psycho-social issues in Western and African birth. Psychology and Health, 12(1), 11-21.


Chalmers, B., & Meyer, D. (1994). What women say about their birth experiences: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 15(4), 211-218.

Chalmers, B., & Omer-Hashi, K. (2002). What Somali women say about giving birth in Canada. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 20(4), 267-282.
Chapman, R. R. (2003). Endangering safe motherhood in Mozambique: Prenatal care as pregnancy risk. Social Science & Medicine, 57(2), 355-374.
Cheung, N. (1996). Diet therapy in the postnatal period: From a Chinese perspective. Part 2. Midwives, 109(1302), 190-193.
Cheung, N. F. (1996). Background and cosmology of Chinese diet therapy in childbearing. Midwives, 109(1301), 146-149.

Cheung, N. F. (1997). Chinese zuo yuezi (sitting in for the first month of the postnatal period) in Scotland. Midwifery, 13(2), 55-65.

Cheung, N. F. (2002). The cultural and social meanings of childbearing for Chinese and Scottish women in Scotland. Midwifery, 18(4), 279-295.
Choi, E. (1986). Unique aspects of Korean-American mothers: An overview of basic management. NAACOG's Clinical Issues in Perinatal and Women's Health Nursing, 3, 570-582.
Choi, E. C. (1986). Unique aspects of Korean-American mothers. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 15(5), 394-400.
Chong, Y. L. C. (1995). Postpartum worries: An exploration of Taiwanese primiparas who participate in the Chinese ritual of tso-yuez-tzu. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 23(1), 533-539.
Choudhry, U. K. (1997). Traditional practices of women from India: Pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 26(5), 533-539.

Chu, C. M. Y. (2005). Postnatal experience and health needs of Chinese migrant women in Brisbane, Australia. Ethnicity and Health, 10(1), 33-56.


Cioffi, J. (2004). Caring for women from culturally diverse backgrounds: midwives' experiences. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 49(5), 437-442.

Colburn, V. (1987). Behavior during childbearing: A cultural potpourri. Birth Defects, 23(6), 226-238.
Condon, L., Ingram, J., Hamid, N., & Hussein, A. (2003). Cultural influences on breastfeeding and weaning. Community Practitioner, 76(9), 344- 349.
Corbett, K. S. (1999). Infant feeding styles of West Indian women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(1), 22-30.

Craig, D. (2005). Women's secrets: Childbirth in rural Ethiopia. Midwifery Today & Childbirth Education, (75), 30-31.

Cross-cultural care giving in maternal child health: A trainers' manual. (1996). New York, NY: The New York Task Force on Immigrant Health.
Davidson, J. (1985). The shadow of life: Psychological explanations for the placenta rituals. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 9(1), 75-92.
Davies, M. M., & Bath, P. A. (2001). The maternity information concerns of Somali women in the United Kingdom. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(2), 237-245.
Davis, R. E. (2001). The postpartum experience for Southeast Asian women in the United States. MCN Maternal and Child Nursing, 26(4), 208-213.
Davis-Floyd, R. (1997). Gender and ritual: Giving birth the American way. In C. B. Brettell & C. F. Sargent (Eds.). Gender in cross-cultural perspective (2nd ed., pp. 403-415). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Davis-Floyd, R. E. (1992). Birth as an American rite of passage. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press.

Davis-Floyd, R. E., & Sargent, C. F. (Eds.). (1997). Childbirth and authoritative knowledge: Cross-cultural perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Degonzalez, S. (1963). Some aspects of child-bearing and child-rearing in a Guatemalan ladino community. Southwest Journal of Anthropology, 19(4), 411-422.
Dempsey, P. A., & Gesse, T. (1983). The childbearing Haitian refugee--cultural applications to clinical nursing. Public Health Reports, 98(3), 261-267.
Dempsey, P., & Gesse, T. (1995). Beliefs, values and practices of Navajo childbearing women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 17(6), 591-604.
Denman-Vitale, S., & Murillo, E. K. (1999). Effective promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women newly immigrated to the United States. Holistic Nursing Practice, 13(4), 51-60.
DePacheo, M. R., & Hutti, M. H. (1998). Cultural beliefs and health care practices of childbearing Puerto Rican American women and Mexican American women. Mother Baby Journal, 3(1), 14-22.

DePacheo, M. R., & Hutti, M. H. (1998). Cultural beliefs and health care practices of childbearing Puerto Rican American women and Mexican American women. Mother Baby Journal, 3(1), 14-22.

Dixon, G. (1993). Colostrum avoidance and early infant feeding in Asian societies. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1(4), 225-229.
Dragonas, T. G. (1987). Greek women's attitudes toward pregnancy, labor, and infant: Their significance for intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8(3), 266-276.
Ebrahim, G. J. (1980). Cross-cultural aspects of pregnancy and breast feeding. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 39(1), 13-15.
Ebrahim, G.J. (1980). Cross-cultural aspects of pregnancy and breast feeding. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 39, 13-15.

Edwards, L. E., Rautio, C., & Hakanson, E. Y. (1987). Pregnancy among refugee women. Minnesota Medicine, 70(11), 633-637.

Elebro, K., Roost, M., Moussa, K., Johnsdotter, S., & Essen, B. (2007). Misclassified maternal deaths among East African women in Sweden. Reproductive Health Matters, 15(30), 153-162.
Ellis, J. (1982). Southeast Asian refugees and maternity care: The Oakland experience. Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care and Education, 9(3), 191-194.
Ertem, I. O., Kaynak, G., Kaynak, C., Ulukol, B., & Gulnar, S. B. (2001). Attitudes and practices of breastfeeding mothers regarding fasting in Ramadan. Child: Care, Health and Development, 27(6), 545-554.

Essen, B., Johnsdotter, S., Hovelius, B., et al. (2000). Qualitative study of pregnancy and childbirth experiences in Somalian women resident in Sweden. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 107(12), 1507-1512.

Faller, H. S. (1985). Perinatal needs of immigrant Hmong women: Surveys of women and health care providers. Public Health Reports, 100(3), 340-343.
Fen, C. (2002). The cultural and social meanings of childbearing for Chinese and Scottish women in Scotland. Midwifery, 18(4), 279-295.
Ferrari, A. M. (2002). The impact of culture upon child rearing practices and definitions of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26(8), 793-814.

Fisher, J. A., Bowman, M., & Thomas, T. (2002). Issues for South Asian Indian patients surrounding sexuality, fertility, and childbirth in the U.S. health care system. Issues for South Asian Indian Patients, 16(2), 151-155.


Fisher, J. R. W., Morrow, M. M., Nhu Ngoc, N. T., & Hoang Anh, L. T. (2004). Prevalence, nature, severity and correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms in Vietnam. The British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 111(12), 1353-1360.

Fishman, C., Evans, R., et al. (1988). Warm bodies, cool milk: Conflicts in post partum food choice for Indochinese women in California. Social Science & Medicine, 26(11), 1125-1132.
FitzSimmons, E., Prost, J.H., & Peniston, S. (1998). Infant head modeling: A cultural process. Archives of Family Medicine, 7(1), 88-90. 
Fok, D. (1996). Cross cultural practice and its influence on breastfeeding--the Chinese culture. Breastfeeding Review, 4(1), 13-18.

Fok, D. (1996). Cross cultural practice and its influence on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Review, 4(1), 13-18.


Fonte, J., & Horton-Deutsch, S. (2005). Treating postpartum depression in immigrant Muslim women. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 11(1), 39-44.

Forman, M. R., Lewando-Hundt, G., Towne, D., et al. (1990). The forty day rest period and infant feeding practices among Bedouin Arabs in the Negev. Medical Anthropology, 12(2), 207-216.
Foss, G. F. (2001). Maternal sensitivity, post-traumatic stress and acculturation in Vietnamese and Hmong mothers. MCN: American Journal of Maternal Care Nursing, 26(5), 257-263.
Fowler, B. A. (1995). Prenatal outreach: An approach to reduce infant mortality of African American infants. The ABNF Journal, 6(1), 15-18.
Fuentes-Afflick, E., & Hessol, N. A. (2000). Interpregnancy interval and the risk of premature infants. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 95(3), 383-90. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from

Gagnon, A. J., Wahoush, O., Dougherty, G., Saucier, J., Dennis, C., Merry, L., Stranger, E. & Stewart, D. E (2006). The childbearing health and related service needs of newcomers (CHARSNN) study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 6, 31. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-6-31.


Gatrad, A. R. (1994). Attitudes and beliefs of Muslin mothers towards pregnancy and infancy. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71(2), 170-174.


Gatrad, A. R., Ray, M., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Hindu birth customs. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89(12), 1094-1097.


Gatrad, A., & Sheikh, A. (2001). Muslim birth customs. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, 84(1), F6-F8.


Geller, S. E., Adams, M. G., Kelly, P. J., Kodkany, B. S., & Derman, R. J. (2006). Postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 92(3), 202-211.

Ghaemi-Ahmadi, S. (1992). Attitudes toward breast-feeding and infant feeding among Iranian, Afghan, and Southeast Asian immigrant women in the United States: Implications for health and nutrition education. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92(3), 354-355.

Gharaibeh, M., Al-Am'aitah, R., Al Jada, N. (2005). Lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women. International Nursing Review, 52(2), 92-100.

Gichia, J. E. (2000). Mothers and others: African-American women's preparation for motherhood. MCN: American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 25(2), 86-91.

Goldbort, J. (2006). Transcultural analysis of postpartum depression. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 31(2), 121-126.


Goldsmith, J. (1990). Childbirth wisdom from the world's oldest societies. Brookline, Mass.: East West Health Books.

Gorman, T., Byrd, T. L., & VanDerslice, J. (1995). Breast-feeding practices, attitudes and beliefs among Hispanic women and men in a border community. Family and Community Health, 18(2), 17-27.
Graff, J. C. (2000). Child rearing in the new independent states: A review of literature. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 15(6), 364-372.
Greene, J., Stewart-Knox, B., & Wright, M. (2003). Feeding preferences and attitudes to breastfeeding and its promotion among teenagers in Northern Ireland. Journal of Human Lactation, 19(1), 57-65.
Greene, M.J. (2007). Strategies for incorporating cultural competence into childbirth education curriculum. Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(2), 33-37.
Gunnlaugsson, G. Einarsdottir, J. (1993). Colostrum and ideas about bad milk: A case study from Guinea-Bissau. Social Science & Medicine, 36(3), 283-288.
Gussler, J. D., & Briesemeister, L. H. (1980). The insufficient milk syndrome: A biocultural explanation. Medical Anthropology, 4(2), 145-174.
Hall, S., Giger, J., & Davidhizar, R. (1996). Cultural beliefs, values, and healing practices: Impact on the perinatal period. Journal of Nursing Science, 1, 99-104.

Hammoud, M. M., White, C. B., & Fetters, M. D. (2005). Opening cultural doors: Providing culturally sensitive healthcare to Arab Americans and American Muslim patients. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 193(4), 1307-1311.

Hao, G. L. & Moore, J. F. (2000). Perinatal care: Cultural and technical differences between China and United States. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(1), 47-54.

Haque, K. N., & Gatrad, A. R. (1994). Attitudes and beliefs of Muslim mothers towards pregnancy and infancy.  Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71(6), 559-560.


Harrison, A. (1991). Childbirth in Kuwait: The experiences of three groups of Arab mothers. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 6(8), 466-475.

Harrison, G. G., Zaghloul, S. S., Galal, O. M., & Gabr, A. (1993). Breastfeeding and weaning in a poor urban neighborhood in Cairo, Egypt: Maternal beliefs and perceptions. Social Science & Medicine, 36(8), 1063-1069.

Harrison, G., Zaghloul, S., Galal, O., et al. (1993). Breastfeeding and weaning in a poor urban neighborhood in Cairo, Egypt: Maternal beliefs and perceptions. Social Science and Medicine, 36(8), 1063-1069.

Harwood, R. L., Schoelmerich, A., et al. (1999). Cultural differences in maternal beliefs and behaviors: A study of middle-class Anglo and Puerto Rican mother-infant pairs in four everyday situations. Child Development, 70(4), 1005-1016.
Helsel, D. G., & Mochel, M. (2002). Afterbirths in the afterlife: Cultural meaning of placental disposal in Hmong American community. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(4), 282-286.
Henderson, S. M., & Brown, J. S. (1987). Infant feeding practices of Vietnamese immigrants to the Northwest United States. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 1(2), 153-174.

Herrel, N., Olevitch, L., DuBois, D. K., Terry, P., Thorp, D., Kind, E., & Said, A. (2004). Somali refugee women speak out about their needs for care during pregnancy and delivery. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 49(4), 345-349.

Higginbottom, G. M. A. (2000). Breast-feeding experiences of women of African heritage in the United Kingdom. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(1), 55-63.
Higgins, B. (2000). Puerto Rican cultural beliefs: Influence on infant feeding practices in western New York. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(1), 19-30.
Hillier, D. (2003). Childbirth in the global village: Implications for midwifery education and practice. New York: Routledge.
Hjern, A., Kocturk-Runefors, T., & Jeppson, O. (1990). Food habits and infant feeding in newly resettled refugee families from Chile and the Middle East. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 8(3), 145-150.
Ho, I., & Holroyd, E. (2002). Chinese women's perceptions of the effectiveness of antenatal education in the preparation for motherhood. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(1), 74-85.
Hofman, J., De Allegri, M., Sarker, M., Sanon, M., & Bohler, T. (2009). Breast milk as the"water that supports and preserves life" - Socio-cultural constructions of breastfeeding and their implications for teh prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Policy, 89(3), 322-328.
Holroyd, E., Katie, F. K. L., Chun, L. S., & Ha, S.W. (1997). "Doing the month": An exploration of postpartum practices in Chinese women. Health Care for Women International, 18(3), 301-313.
Homer, C. S., Sheehan, A., & Cooke, M. (2002). Initial infant feeding decisions and duration of breastfeeding in women from English, Arabic and Chinese-speaking backgrounds in Australia. Breastfeeding Review, 10(2), 27-32.
Horn, B. (1990). Cultural concepts and postpartal care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 2(2), 48-51.
Hoskins, A. (1992). Pregnancy and fasting during Ramadan. British Medical Journal, 304(6836), 1247.
Huang, Y., & Mathers, N. (2001). Postnatal depression--biological or cultural? A comparative study of postnatal women in the UK and Taiwan. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(3), 279-87.
Hull, V., & Simpson, M. (Eds.). (1985). Breastfeeding, child health & child spacing: Cross-cultural perspectives. Dover, NH: Croom Helm.

Hundt, G. L., Beckerleg, S., Kassem, F., Abu-Jafar, A. M., et al. (2000). Women's health custom made: Building on the 40 days postpartum for Arab women. Health Care for Women International, 21(6), 529-542.

Hung, P. (2001). Traditional Chinese customs and practices for the postnatal care of Chinese mothers. Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 7(4), 202-206.
Hunt, L. M., Glantz, N. M., & Halperin, D. C. (2002). Childbirth care-seeking behavior in Chiapas. Health Care for Women International, 23(1), 98 118.
Hunter, L.P. (2006). Women give birth and pizzas are delivered: Language and Western childbirth paradigms. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 51(2), 119-124.
Hutchinson, M. K., & Baqi-Aziz, M. (1994). Nursing care of the child bearing Muslim family. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 23(9), 767-771.

Ibrahim, M. M., Persson, L. A., Omar, M. M., & Wall, S. (1992). Breast feeding and the dietary habits of children in rural Somalia. Acta Paediatrica, 81(6-7), 480-483.


Iliyasu, Z., Kabir, M., Galadanci, H. S., Abubakar, I. S., Salihu, H. M., & Aliyu, M. H. (2006, April). Postpartum beliefs and practices in Danbare village, Northern Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 26(3), 211-215.

Ingram, J., Johnson, D., & Hamid, N. (2003). South Asian grandmothers' influence on breast feeding in Bristol. Midwifery, 19(4), 318-327.
Irfan, S. (2008). Childrearing practices among South Asian Muslims in Britain: The cultural context of physical punishment. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 28(1), 147-161.  
Ishikawa, N., Simon, K., & Porter, J. D. H. (2002). Factors affecting the choice of delivery site and incorporation of traditional birth customs in a refugee camp, Thailand. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 78(1), 55-57.

Ito, M., & Sharts-Hopko, N. C. (2002). Japanese women's experience of childbirth in the United States. Health Care for Women International, 23(6-7), 666-677.

Jambunathan, J., & Stewart, S. (1995). Hmong women in Wisconsin: What are their concerns in pregnancy and childbirth? Birth, 22(4), 204-210.
Jeffery, P., Jeffery, R., et al. (1989). Labour pains and labour power: Women and childbearing in India. London: Zed.
Jentsch, B., Durham, R., Hundley, V., Hussein, J. (2007). Creating consumer satisfaction  in maternity care: The neglected needs of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(2), 128-134.
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