Home - Cultural Aspects of Ethnopharmacology

Culture and Ethnopharmacology

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Abu-Irmaileh, B. E., & Afifi, F. U. (2003). Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(2-3), 193-197.


Ailinger, R. L., Molloy, S., Zamora, L., & Benavides, C. (2004). Herbal remedies in a Nicaraguan barrio. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(4), 278-282.


Ali, H., Konig, G. M., Khalid, S. A., Wright, A. D., Kaminsky, R. (2002). Evaluation of selected Sudanese medicinal plants for their in vitro activity against hemoflagellates, selected bacteria, HIV-1-RT and tyrosine kinase inhibitory, and for cytotoxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83(3), 219-228.


Alvarez Arlas, B. T. (2000). Ichthyotoxic plants used in Spain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73(3), 505-512.


Ansari, N. M., et al. (2005). Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK. Phytotherapy Research, 19(10), 907-911.

Appelt, G. D. (1988). Toward an appreciation of cross-cultural perspectives in modern health care. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 13(3), 175-178.
Arcury, T.A., Grzywacz, J.G., Bell, R.A., Neiberg, R.H., Lang, W., & Quandt, S.A. (2007). Herbal remedy use as health self-management among older adults. The Journals of Gerentology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62(Suppl). S142-S149. 
Armstrong, E. P., Bootman, J. L., & Al-Dhewalia, H. M. (1992). Pharmacy practice in eastern Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 49(9), 2252-2254.
Aslam, M., & Shaw, J. (1995). A case study--dangers of transcultural medicine in the U.K. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 20(6), 345-347.
Assemi, M. & Cullander, C. (2003). Cultural competency in pharmaceutical care delivery: A training template for a one-day pharmacy student elective course. (16 pages). Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.futurehealth.ucsf.edu/pdf_files/Assemi_Cullander%202003%20Curricula-final.pdf

Assemi, M., Cullander, C., & Hudmon, K. S. (2004). Implementation and evaluation of cultural competency training for pharmacy students. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38(5), 781-786.

Avery, K. (2007). Medication non-adherence issues with refugees and immigrant patients. Retrieved December 8, 2008 from http://ethnomed.org/clin_topics/pharmacy/non_adherence.htm

Ayensu, E. S. (1981). Medicinal plants of the West Indies. Algonac, MI: Reference.


Balant, L. P., & Balant-Gorgia, E. A. (2000). Cultural differences: Implications on drug therapy and global drug development. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 38(2). 47-52. 


Balick, M. J., et al. (2000). Medicinal plants used by Latino healers for women's health conditions in New York City. Economic Botany, 54(3), 344-357.


Barrett, B., Shadick, K., Schlling, R., Spencer, L., Del Rosario, S., Moua, K., et al. (1998). Hmong medicine interactions: Improving cross-cultural health care. Family Medicine, 30(3), 179-184.


Bazaldua, O. V., & Sias, J. (2004). Cultural competence: A pharmacy perspective. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 17(3), 160-166.

Bharucha, D. X., Morling, B. A., & Niesenbaum, R. A. (2003). Use and definition of herbal medicine differ by ethnicity. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 37(10), 1409-1413.
Bosch, F., & Banos, J. E. (2002). Religious beliefs of patients and caregivers as a barrier to the pharmacologic control of cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 72(2), 107-111.

Bourbonnais-Spear, N., Awad, R., Merali, Z., Maquin, P., Cal, V., & Arnason, J. T. (2007). Ethnopharmacological investigation of plants used to treat susto, a folk illness. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(3), 380-387.

Brown, C. M. & Nichols-English G. (1999). Dealing with patient diversity in pharmacy practice. Drug Topics, 143(17), 61-70.
Browner, C. H. (1985). Plants used for reproductive health in Oaxaca, Mexico. Economic Botany, 39(4), 482-504.
Burroughs, V.J., et al. (2002). Racial and ethnic differences in response to medicines: Towards individualized pharmaceutical treatment. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94(10 Suppl), 1-26.
Camphina, B. J. (1994). Ethnic pharmacology: A neglected area of cultural competence. Ohio Nurses Review, 69(6), 9-10, 12.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). Ethnic psychopharmacology: An overlooked area of cultural competency in mental healthcare. In J. Campinha-Bacote (Ed.), Readings and resources in transcultural health care model and mental health (13th ed.). OH: Transultural C.A.R.E Associates.

Cano, J. H., Volpato. (2004). Herbal mixture in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 90(2-3), 293-316.


Carvalho, F. (2003). The toxicological potential of khat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87(1), 1-2.


Chan, K. (2003). Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicine. Chemosphere, 52(9), 1361-1371.


Chan, K., & Cheung, L. (2000). Examples of interactions between Chinese herbal medicines and orthodox drugs. In K. Chang & L. Cheung (Eds.), Interactions between Chinese herbal medicines and orthodox drugs. New York: Harwood Academic Press.


Chan, T. Y. K., Chan A. Y. K., & Critchley, J. A. J. H. (1992). Hospital admissions due to adverse reactions to Chinese herbal medicines. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 95(4), 296-298.

Chen, J. P., Barron, C., Lin, K. M., & Chung, H. (2002). Prescribing medication for Asians with mental disorders. Western Journal of Medicine, 176(4), 271-274.
Church, R. M. (1987). Pharmacy practice in the Indian health service. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 44(4), 771-775.

Cocks, M., & Dold, A. (2000). The role of African chemists in the health care system of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 51(10), 1505-1515.


Cocks, M., & Moller, V. (2002). Use of indigenous and indigenised medicines to enhance personal well-being: A South African case study. Social Science & Medicine, 54(3), 387-397.


Cordell, G. A., & Colvard, M. D. (2005). Some thoughts on the future of ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100(1-2), 5-14.


Cuellar, L. M., & Fitzsimmons, D. S. (2003). Raising pharmacists' cultural awareness. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60(3), 285-6.


Davidhizar, R. (2002). Strategies for providing culturally appropriate pharmaceutical care to the Hispanic patient. Hospital Pharmacy, 37(5), 505-510.


Davis, R.E. (1997). Understanding ethnic women's experiences with pharmacopeia. Health Care for Women International, 18(5), 425-37.

DeSmet, P.A.G.M. (1998). Traditional Pharmacology and medicine in Africa: Ethnopharmacological themes in sub-Saharan art objects and utensils. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 63(1-2), 1-179.

Domarew, C.A., Holt, R. R., & Snitkoff, G. G. (2002). A study of Russian phytomedicine and commonly used herbal remedies. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 2(4), 31-48.


Doyle, E., & Faucher, M. A. (2002). Pharmaceutical therapy in midwifery practice: A culturally competent approach. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 47(3), 122-9, 220-4.


Dreskin, S. C. (2000). A prescription drug packaged in China and sold as an ethnic remedy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(18), 2393.


Eddouks, M., Maghrani, M., Lamhadri, A., Ouahidi, M.-L., & Jouad, H. (2002). Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiac diseases in the South-East region of Morocco (Tafilalet). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 82(2-3), 97-103.


Elmi, A. S. (1980). Present state of knowledge and research on the plants used in traditional medicine in Somalia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2(1), 23-27.


Elmi, A. S. (1983). The chewing of khat in Somalia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 8, 163-176.

Engle, M.H. (1997). Herbs, hormones, and holistic medicine: Implications for the fetus and nursing infant. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 9(3), 74-77.

Ergil, K.V., Kramer, E.J., & Ng, A.T. (2002). Chinese herbal medicines. Western Journal of Medicine, 176(4), 271-274.


Ernst, E., & Coon, J. T. (2001). Heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicines: A systematic review. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy, 70(6), 497-504.


Ernst, E., & De Smet, P. A. G. M. (1996). Adverse effects of complementary therapies. In M. N. G. Dukes & J. K. Aronson (Eds.), Meyler's side effects of drugs. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.


Etkin, N., Ross, J., & Muazzamu, I. (1990). The indigenization of pharmaceuticals: Therapeutic transitions in rural Hasualand. Social Science & Medicine, 30(8), 919-928.

Evans, E. (2006). Instructional design and assessment: An elective course in cultural competence for healthcare professionals. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(3), Article 55 (7 pages).
Fugh-Berman, A. & Ernst, E. (2001). Herb-drug interactions: Review and assessment of report reliability. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 52(5), 587-595.
Gedif, T., & Hahn, H.-J. (2003). The use of medical plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3), 155-161.

Gessler, M. C., Msuyu, D. E., Nkunya, M. H., Schar, A., Heinrich, M., & Tanner, M. (1995). Traditional healers in Tanzania: Sociocultural profile and three short portraits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 48(3), 145-160.


Giday, M., Asfaw, Z., Elmqvist, T., & Woldu, Z. (2003). An ethnobotanical study of medical plants used by the Zay people in Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85(1), 43-52.


Gurib-Fakim, A. (2006). Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 27, 1-93.


Halberstein, R. A. (2005). Medicinal plants: Historical and cross-cultural usage patterns. Annals of Epidemiology, 15(9), 686-699.


Hamdan, I., & Affi, F. (2004). Studies on the in vitro hypoglycemic activities of some medicinal plants used in treatment of diabetes in Jordanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93(1), 117-121.


Hebbar, S. S., Harsha, V. H., Shripathi, V., & Hegde, G. R. (2004). Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 94(2-3), 261-266.

Hoareau, L. & DaSilva, E.J. (1999). Medicinal plants: A re-emerging health aid. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2(2). Retrieved October 30, 2008 from http://www.ejbiotechnology.cl/content/vol2/issue2/full/2/bip/bip.html

Horne, R., Graupner, L., Frost, S., Weinman, J., Wright, S. M., & Hankins, M. (2004). Medicine in a multi-cultural society: The effect of cultural background on beliefs about medications. Social Science & Medicine, 59(6), 1307-1313.


Howes, M. J., & Houghton, P. J. (2003). Plants used in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine for improvement of memory and cognitive function. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 75(3), 513-527.


Huxtable, R. J. (1998). Ethnopharmacology and ethnobotany along the US-Mexican border: Potential problems with cross-cultural 'borrowings'. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 41, 259-264.


Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2003). Cultural diversity and medication safety. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from http://www.ismp.org/MSAarticles/diversity.htm


Janetzky, K., & Morreale, A. P. (1997). Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. American Journal of Health Pharmacy, 54(6), 692-693.

Jeruto, P., Lukhoba, C., Ouma, G., Otieno, D., & Mutai, C. (2008). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116(2), 370-376.
Kaido, T. L., Veale, D. J. H., Havlik, I., Rama, D. B. K. (1997). Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labor. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55(3), 185-191.
Kamat, V. R., & Nichter, M. (1998). Pharmacies, self-medication and pharmaceutical marketing in Bombay, India. Social Science and Medicine, 47(6), 779-794.
Kilwein, J. H. (1996). On needles, breasts and bullets: Health and conflict of values. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Therapeutics, 21(6), 363-366.
Kishi, D. T. (2001). Japanese pharmaceutical education: Implications for Americans teaching Japanese pharmacy students. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 58(11), 1032-1035.
Kishi, D.T. (2000). A glimpse of pharmacy practice in Japan. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 57(14), 1354-1360.

Kolb, V. M. (2002). Herbal medicine of Wisconsin Indians. Progress in Drug Research, 58, 51-97.


Kudzma. E. (1992). Drug response: All bodies are not created equal. American Journal of Nursing, 92(12), 48-51.


Lai, K. (2005). Managing the drug regimens of immigrants from other cultures. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 62(2), 205-209.


Lam, T. P. (2001). Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55(10), 762-765.

Lans, C. (2007). Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(1), 13-24.  

Lee, C. O. (2005). Herbs and Cytotoxic Drugs: Recognizing and Communicating Potentially Relevant Interactions. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 9(4), 1-11.


Lev, A., & Amar, Z. (2002). Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 82(203), 131-145.


Levy, R. (1993). Ethnic and racial differences in response to medicines. Reston, VA: National Pharmaceutical Council.


Lin, K. M., & Poland, R. E. (1989). Pharmacotherapy of Asian psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Annals, 19(12), 659-663.


Lin, K. M., & Smith, M. W. (2000). Psychopharmacotherapy in the context of culture and ethnicity. In P. Ruiz (Ed.), Ethnicity and Psychopharmacology (1-36). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.


Lin, K. M., Poland, R. E., & Nagasaki, G. (1993). Psychopharmacology and Psychobiology of Ethnicity. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.


Lin, K. M., Smith, M. W., & Ortiz, V. (2001). Culture and psychopharmacology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(3), 523-538.


Lin, K., M., Cheung, F., Smith, M., & Poland, R. E. (1997). The use of psychotropic medications in working with Asian patients. In E. Lee (Ed.), Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for clinicians (388-399). New York: Guilford.


Lin, K., Poland, R., & Lesser, I. (1986). Ethnicity and psychopharmacology. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 10(2), 151-165.


Mabina, M. H., Pitsoe, S. B., & Moodley, J. (1997). The effect of traditional herbal medicines on pregnancy outcome: The King Edward VIII hospital experience. South Africa Medical Journal, 87(8), 1008-1010.

Marcos, L., & Cancro, R. (1982). Pharmacotherapy of Hispanic depressed patients: Clinical observations. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 36(4), 505-512.
Matthews, H.W. (1995). Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in response to medicines. Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions, 12(2), 77-91.
McDonagh, M. S. (2000). Cross-cultural communication and pharmaceutical care. Drug Topics, 144(18), 95-104. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from http://www.rxed.org/drugtopics/ce/2000/ce091800.pdf
Mendoza, R., Smith, R., Poland, R., et al. (1991). Ethnic psychopharmacology: The Hispanic and Native American perspective. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 27(4), 449-461.
Meyerson, M. D. (1994). Many cultures/more compassion. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 19(4), 215-218
Micozzi, M. S. (1983). Anthropological study of health beliefs, behaviors, and outcomes: Traditional folk medicine and ethnopharmacology. Human Organization, 42(4), 351-3.
Mills, S. & Bones, K. (2005). The essential guide to herbal safety. Missouri: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.

Mitchell, F. (1983). Popular medical concepts in Jamaica and their impact on drug use. Western Journal of Medicine, 139(6), 841-847.


Morgan, M., & Watkins, C. J. (1988). Managing hypertension: Beliefs and responses to medication among cultural groups. Sociology of Health & Illness, 10(4), 561-578.


Muñoz, C., Hilgenberg, C. (2005). Ethnopharmacology: Understanding how ethnicity can affect drug response is essential to providing culturally competent care. American Journal of Nursing, 105(8), 40-48.

Mutchler, J.E., Bacigalupe, G., Coppin, A., & Gottlieb, A. (2007). Language barriers surrounding medication use among older Latinos. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerentology, 22(1), 101-114.

Muzyk, A. J., Muzyk, T. L. & Barnett, C. W. (2004). Counseling Spanish-speaking patients: Atlanta pharmacists' cultural sensitivity, use of language-assistance services, and attitudes. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 44(3), 366-374.


National Pharmaceutical Council. (2003). Resources & publications: Cultural diversity. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from http://www.npcnow.org/resources/issuearea/cultural_diversity.asp


Ndubani, P., & Hojer, B. (1999). Traditional healers and the treatment of sexually transmitted illnesses in rural Zambia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67(1), 15-25.

Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A., & Phillipson, J. D. (1996). Herbal medicines: A guide for health-care professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
Nichter, M., & Vuckovic, N. (1994). Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice. Social Science and Medicine, 39(11), 1509-1525.
Nolen, A. L., Ball, R., Pinon, M., et al. (2002). Using medications purchased in Mexico: Position statement of the Texas Society of Health-System Pharmacists. American Journal of Health System Pharmacy, 59(13), 1289-1290.
NSW (New South Whales) Lead Reference Center. (1997). Possible lead containing home remedies and cosmetics. In Lead as a silent hazard (pp. 154-156). Retrieved October 15, 2008 from http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/lead/docs/homeremedies.pdf
Okpako, D. (2006). African medicine: Tradition and beliefs. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 276, 239-240. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from http://www.pharmj.com/pdf/articles/pj_20060225_traditional02.pdf

Okpako, D. T. (1986). Ethnic differences in reactions to drugs and xenobiotics: The impact of traditional African medicine on the use of modern drugs. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 214, 59-75.


Ososki, A. L., & Lohr, P. (2000). Ethnobotanical literature survey of medicinal plants in the Dominican Republic used for women's health conditions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79(3), 285-298.


Otway, C., & Bowskill, D. (2005). Prescribing for patients where English is not a first language: A pilot study. NursePrescribing, 3(3), 110-114.


Parmentier, H., Golding, S., Ashworth, M., & Rowlands, G. (2004). Community pharmacy treatment of minor ailments in refugees. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 29(5), 465-9.


Patch, C. S. (2006). Health benefits of herbs and spices: The past, the present, the future. Medical Journal of Australia, 185(4 Suppl 21), S1-S24.


Pi, E. H., & Gray, G. E. (2000). Ethnopharmacology for Asians. In P. Ruiz (Ed.), Ethnicity and Psychopharmacology (91-113). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.


Pieroni, A., & Quave, C. L. (2005). Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: A comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101(1-3), 258-270.

Pieroni, A., Houlihan, L., Ansari, N., Hussain, B., & Aslam, S. (2007). Medicinal perceptions of vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants living in Bradford, Northern England. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113(1), 100-110.

Pieroni, A., Muenz, H., Akbulut, M., Baser, K. H. C., & Durmuskahya, C. (2005). Traditional phytotherapy and trans-cultural pharmacy among Turkish migrants living in Cologne, Germany. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 102(1), 69-88.


Rahman, S., Hasnat, A., Hasan, C. M., Rashid, M. A., & Ilias, M. (2001). Pharmacological evaluation of Bangladeshi medicinal plants- a review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 39(1), 1-6.


Schaafsma, E. S., & Raynorr, D. K., & de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W. (2003). Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities: Barriers and possible solutions. Pharmacy World & Science, 25(5), 185-190.


Scott, C. J., & Riedlinger, J. (1998). Promoting education about complementary or alternative medical therapies. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 55(23), 2525-2527.


Sheng-Ji, P. (2001). Ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicine studies: Some experiences from Asia. Pharmaceutical Biology, 39(Suppl), 74-79.


Siganga, W. W., & Huynh, T. C. (1997). Barriers to the use of pharmacy services: The case of ethnic populations. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Association, NS37(3), 335-340.

Singh, S., & Majumdar, D. K. (1999). Evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holy Basil). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 65(1), 13-19.
Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. (2008). About herbs, botanicals, and other products. Integrative medicine herb database. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from http://www.mskcc.org/mskcc/html/11570.cfm
South African Traditional Medicines Research Unit, Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Services, University of Cape Town. (n.d.). Traditional medicines database: South African traditional medicines database. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from http://www.mrc.ac.za/Tramed3
Souza Brito, A.R.M. (1996). How to study the pharmacology of medicinal plants in underdeveloped countries. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 54(2-3), 131-138.
Spring, M.A. (1989). Ethnopharmacologic analysis of medicinal plants used by Laotian Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 26(1), 65-91.
Stargrove, M.B., Treasure, J., & McKee, D.L. (2008). Herb, nutrient, and drug interactions: Clinical implications and therapeutic strategies. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
Steiner, J. F. (1994). Topics in clinical pharmacology: Racial and ethnic variations in drug response. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 7(10), 754.

Tabuti, J. R., Dhillion, S. S., & Lye, K. A. (2003). Traditional medicine in Bulamogi county, Uganda: Its practitioners, users and viability. Journal of Ethnopharmacalogy, 85(1), 119-129.

Thorens, G., Gex-Fabry, M., Zullino, D.F., & Eytan, A. (2008). Attitudes toward psychopharmacology among hospitalized patients from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 55-61.
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. (2008). Traditional Knowledge and Medicine Dictionaries/Databases. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/dcom/olia/dictionaries.html
van der Geest, S. & Hardon, A. (2006). Social and cultural efficacies of medicines: Complications for antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2, 48-52.
Van Esterik, P. (1988). To strengthen and refresh: Herbal therapy in Southeast Asia. Social Science and Medicine, 27(8), 751-759.

Walker, S. (Ed.). (1994). The Relevance of Ethnic Factors in the Clinical Evaluation of Medicines. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Warren, B.J. (2008). Ethnopharmacology: the effect on patients, health care professionals, and systems.  Urologic Nursing, 28(4), 292-294.

Westberg, S. M., & Sorensen, T. D. (2005). Pharmacy-related health disparities experienced by non-English-speaking patients: Impact of pharmaceutical care. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 45(1), 48-54.


Yesilada, E. (2005). Past and future contributions to traditional medicine in the health care system of the Middle-East. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100(1-2), 135-137.


Yousif, M. A. (2002). In-home drug storage and utilization habits: A Sudanese study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 8(2-3), 422-431.


Yu, H., Zhong, S., Berry, M. I., & Chan, K. (1997). Pharmacognostical investigation on traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: Identification of six herbs from the UK market. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 49(Suppl 4), 212.

Yuzong, C. (2005). Traditional Chinese medicine information database. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid_ns.asp
Zenk, S., Shaver, J., Peragallo, N., Fox, P., & Chavez, N. (2001). Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women. Health Care for Women International, 22(6), 585-597.
©Jacquelyn Coughlan, May 2009 ( citations)