Home - Cultural Aspects of Female Circumcision

Cultural Aspects of Female Circumcision

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. (1994). To mutilate in the name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of male and female circumcision. Medicine and Law, 13(7-8), 575-622. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.cirp.org/library/cultural/aldeeb1/


Abusharaf, R M. (2001). Virtuous cuts: Female genital circumcision in an African ontology. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 12(1), 112-140.


Abusharaf, R. M. (1998). Unmasking tradition: A Sudanese anthropologist confronts female "circumcision" and its terrible tenacity. The Sciences, 38(2), 22-27.


Adams, K. E. (2004). What's "normal": Female genital mutilation, psychology, and body image. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 59(3), 168-170.

Adeyemo, S. A. (2003). The cultural and socio-psychological implications of female circumcision. Psychology & Education, 40(1), 50-54.

Adeyemo, S.A. (2003). The cultural and socio-psychological implications of female circumcision. Psychology & Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 40(1), 50-54.


Adinma, J. B., & Agbai, A. O. (1999). Practice and perceptions of female genital mutilation among Nigerian Igbo women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19(1), 44-8.


Ahlberg, B M., Njau V W., Kiiru, K & Krantz, I. (2000). Gender masked or self-inflicted pain: Female circumcision, eradication and persistence in central Kenya. African Sociological Review, 4(1), 35-54.

Ahlberg, B. M., Krantz, I., Lindmark, G., & Warsame, M. (2004). 'It's only a tradition': Making sense of eradication interventions and the persistence of female 'circumcision' within a Swedish context. Critical Social Policy, 24(1), 50-78.

Ahlberg, B. M., Krantz, I., Lindmark, G., & Warsame, M. (2004). 'It's only a tradition': Making sense of eradication interventions and the persistence of female 'circumcision' within a Swedish context. Crictical Social Policy, 24(1), 50-78.

Ahmadu, F. (2000). Rites and wrongs: An insider/outsider reflects on power and excision. In Female "Circumcision in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change. Shell-Duncan, B. & Hernlun, Y. (Eds.). pp. 283-312. Boulder: Lynn Rienner.

Ahmed, S. (1996). Leaving the female body intact. Nursing New Zealand, 2(4), 20-21.


Allotey, P., Manderson, L., & Grover, S. (2001). The politics of female genital surgery in displaced communities. Critical Public Health, 11(3), 189-201.


Almroth, L., Almroth-Berggren, V., Hassanein, O. M., Al-Said, S. S., Hassan, S. S., et al. (2001). Male complications of female genital mutilation. Social Science and Medicine, 53(11), 1455-1460.


Althaus, F. A. (1997). Female circumcision: Rite of passage or violation of rights? International Family Planning Perspectives, 23(3), 130-133. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/2313097.html

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics. (1998). Female genital mutilation. Pediatrics, 102(1), 153-156.
Amhed, B. (2000). Management of women who are circumcised especially during pregnancy and childbirth. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 20(3), 280-281.

Amnesty International. (1997). What is female genital mutilation. (7 pages). Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ACT77/006/1997/en/dom-ACT770061997en.pdf


Antonazzo, M. (2003). Problems with criminalizing female genital cutting. Peace Review, 15(4), 471-477.


Anuforo, P. Q., Oyedele, L., & Pacquiao, D. F. (2004). Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(2), 103-113.


Arbesman, M., Kahler, L., & Buck, G.M. (1993). Assessment of the impact of female circumcision on the gynecological, genitourinary and obstetrical health problems of women from Somalia: Literature review and case series. Women & Health, 20(3), 27-42.

Asad, T. (1983). Notes on body pain and truth in Medieval Christian ritual. Economy and Society, 12(3), 287-327.
Ausherman, J.A., Welshimer, K.J., & Black, J.M. (1999). Female genital mutilation: What health educators should know. Journal of Health Education, 30(4), 222-228.

Balk, D. (2000). To marry and bear children? The demographic consequences on infibulation in Sudan. In B. Shell-Duncan & Y. Hernlund (Eds.),  Female 'Circumcision' in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change (pp. 55-71). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher.

Barzoloski-O'Connor, B. (2000). Female genital mutilation is a rite of passage, a wrong on womankind. Nursing Spectrum, 9(1), 22-23.
Bashir, L. (1997). Female genital mutilation: Balancing intolerance of practice with tolerance of culture. Journal of Women's Health, 6(1), 11-14.

Bashir, L. M. (1997). Female genital mutilation: Balancing intolerance of the practice with tolerance of culture. Journal of Women's Health: The Official Publication of the Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research, 6(1), 11-14.


Bedri, R. (2002). FC? FGC? FGM?: To those who experience it, the term is insignificant. The suffering is not. Bridges for cross-cultural understanding, 4(3), 5-7.


Bell, K. (2005). Genital cutting and Western discourses on sexuality. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 19(2), 125-148.


Berggren, V., Bergstrom, S., & Edberg, A. K. (2006). Being different and vulnerable: Experiences of immigrant African women who have been circumcised and sought maternity care in Sweden. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(1), 50-57.


Berggren, V., Salam, G. A., Bergstrom, S., Johansson, E., & Edberg, A. (2004). An explorative study of Sudanese midwives' motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth. Midwifery, 20(4), 299-311.


Black, J. A., & Debelle, G. D. (1995). Female genital mutilation in Britain. British Medical Journal, 310(6994), 1590-1592. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/310/6994/1590


Blust, L. C. (1999). Chastity of the flesh. Health and societal issues in female circumcision. Advance for Nurse Practitioners, 7(1), 57-58.


Boyle, E. H., McMorris, B. J., & Gomez, M. (2002). Local conformity to international norms: The case of female genital cutting. International Sociology, 17(1), 5-33.

Boyle, E.H. & Preves, S.E. (2000). National politics as international process: The case of anti-female-genital-cutting laws. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 703-737. 
Brady, M. (1998). Female genital mutilation. Nursing, 28(9), 50-51.

Brady, M. (1999). Female genital mutilation: Complications and risk of HIV transmission. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 13(12), 709-716. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/HIV/brady1/


Burstyn, L. (1995). Female circumcision comes to America. Atlantic Monthly, 276(4), 28-35.


Calder, B. L., Brown, Y. M., & Rae, D. I. (1993). Female circumcision/genital mutilation: Culturally sensitive care. Health Care for Women International, 14(3), 227-238.


Caldwell, J. C., Orubuloye, I. O., & Caldwell, P. (2000). Female genital mutilation: Conditions of decline. Population Research and Policy Review, 19(3), 233-254.


Cameron, J., & Rawlings-Anderson, K. (2001). Women's issues. Female circumcision and episiotomy: Both mutilation? British Journal of Midwifery, 9(3), 137-142.


Campbell, C. C. (2004). Care of women with female circumcision. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 49(4), 364-365.

Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. (2000). Female circumcision/female genital mutilation: Global laws and policies towards elimination. (2 pages). Retrieved October 6, 2008 from http://www.popline.org/docs/1548/170869.html
Center for Reproductive Rights. (2004). Legislation on female genital mutilation in the United States. (16 pages). Retrieved May 6, 2009 from http://reproductiverights.org/sites/default/files/documents/pub_bp_fgmlawsusa.pdf
Chalmers, B., & Hashi, K. O. (2000). Somali women's birth experiences in Canada after earlier female genital mutilation. Birth, 27(4), 227-234.

Chalmers, B., & Hashi, K. O. (2000). 432 Somali women's birth experiences in Canada after earlier female genital mutilation. Birth, 27(4), 227-234.

Chelala, C. (1998). An alternative way to stop female genital mutilation. The Lancet, 352(9122), 126.

Chelala, C. (1998). An alternative way to stop female genital mutilation. The Lancet, 352, 126.

Christoffersen-Deb, A. (2005). "Taming tradition.": Medicalized female genital practices in Western Kenya. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 19(4), 402-418.

Circumcision Information and Resource Pages - CIRP. (2007). Circumcision information pages and reference library. This web site provides information about all aspects of genital surgery known as circumcision. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.cirp.org


Cronin, A. M., Anders, B., & Moore, M. J. (1996). Latino belief of alleged medical procedure. The Western Journal of Medicine, 164(4), 364-365.


Daley, A. (2004). Female genital mutilation: Consequences for midwifery. British Journal of Midwifery, 12(5), 292-298.


Daley, A. (2004). Caring for women who have undergone genital mutilation. Nursing Times, 100(26), 32-35.


Davis, G., Ellis, J., Hibbert, M., Perez, R. P., & Zimbelman, E. (1999). Female circumcision: The prevalence and nature of the ritual in Eritrea. Military Medicine, 164(1), 11-16.


Dawson, M. T., & Amezquita, R. (1998). A case of cultural misunderstanding. Autralian Family Physician, 27(8), 669-670.


Dirie, M. A., & Lindmark, G. (1991). Female circumcision in Somalia and women's motives. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 70(7), 581-585.


Dirie, M. A., & Lindmark, G. (1992). The risk of medical complications after female circumcision. East African Medical Journal, 69(9), 479-482.


Donovan, P. (2005). Research unwrapped. Female genital mutilation. Practising Midwife, 8(6), 38-40.


Dorkenoo, E. (1994). Cutting the rose: Female genital mutilation. London, UK: Minority Rights Group.

Easton, P., Monkman, K., & Miles, R. (2007). Social policy from the bottom up: Abandoning FGC in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Terry, G. & Hoare, J. (Eds.), Gender-based violence (pp. 70-85). Oxford: Oxfam GB.

El Dawla, A. S. (1999). The political and legal struggle over female genital mutilation in Egypt: Five years since the ICPD. Reproductive Health Matters, 7(13), 128-136.


El-Defrawi, M. H., Lotfy, G., Dandash, K. F., Rafaat, A. H., & Eyada, M. (2001). Female genital mutilation and its psychosexual impact. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 27(5), 465-473.


El-Gibaly, O., Ibrahim, B., Mensch, B. S., & Clark, W. H. (2002). The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: Evidence and interpretation. Social Science & Medicine, 54(2), 205-220.


El-Tom, A. O. (1998). Female circumcision and ethnic identification in Sudan with special reference to the Berti of Darfur1. GeoJournal, 46(2), 163-170.

Elchalal, U., Ben-Ami, B., Gillis, R., & Brezenski, A. (1997). Ritualistic female genital mutilation: Current status and future outlook. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, 52(10), 643-651.

Elwood, A. (2005). Female genital cutting, 'circumcision' and mutilation: Physical, psychological and cultural perspectives. Contemporary Sexuality, 39(1), i.

Essen, B., Bodker, B., Sjoberg, N-O., Gudmundsson, S., Ostergren, P-O., & Langhoff-Roos, J. (2002). Is there an association between female circumcision and perinatal death?. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80(8), 629-632.

Eyega, Z., & Conneely, E. (1997). Facts and fiction regarding female circumcision/female genital mutilation: A pilot study in New York City. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 52(4), 174-178, 187.


The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. (2003). News. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.fgmnetwork.org/index.php


Female genital mutilation. (1997). Australian Nursing Journal, 5(5), 18.


Ferguson, I., & Ellis, P. (1995). Female genital mutilation: A review of current literature. Canadian Department of Justice, 15, 1-33. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from  http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/1995/wd95_15-dt95_15/index.html


Fourcroy, J. L. (1998). The three feminine sorrows. Hospital Practice, 33(7), 15-16, 21.


Fox, E. (1998). Female genital mutilation protocol for clinical staff. Womens Health Newsletter, (36), 6.


Gage, A. J., & Van Rossem, R. (2006). Attitudes toward the discontinuation of female genital cutting among men and women in Guinea. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 92(1), 92-96.


Gibeau, A. M. (1998). Female genital mutilation: When a cultural practice generates clinical and ethical dilemmas. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 27(1), 85-91.


Gordon, D. (1991). Female circumcision and genital operations in Egypt and Sudan: A dilemma for medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(1), 3-14.


Grassivaro-Gallo, P., & Viviani, F. (1992). The origin of infibulation in Somalia: An ethological hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology, 13, 253-265.


Gruenbaum, E. (1996). The cultural debate over female circumcision: The Sudanese are arguing this one out for themselves. Medical Anthropological Quarterly, 10(4), 455-475.


Gruenbaum, E. (2005). Socio-cultural dynamics of female genital cutting: Research findings, gaps, and directions. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 7(5), 429-441.


Guiné, A. & Fuentes, F. J. M. (2007). Engendering redistribution, recognition, and representation: the case of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the United Kingdom and France. Politics & Society, 35(3), 477-519.


Han, E. L. (2001). Legal and non-legal responses to concerns for women's rights in countries practicing female circumcision. In Debating women's equality (pp. 201-223). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Hassan, A. A. R. (2001). Sudan: Summary of the impact of research on FGM. Women's International Network News, 27(1), 41.

Hayford, S. R. (2005). Conformity and change: Community effects on female genital cutting in Kenya. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(2), 121-140.


Heatherly, J. (2000). Transcultural nursing and female circumcision. Canadian Operating Room Nursing Journal, 18(1), 7-12.


Hicks, E. K. (1996). Infibulation: Female Mutilation in Islamic Northeastern America. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.


Horowitz, C. R., & Jackson, J. C. (1997). Female "circumcision": African women confront American medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine, 12(8), 491-499.


Hosken, F. & Women's International Network. (2003). Female genital and sexual mutilation. WIN News, Winter. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2872/is_1_29/ai_98009194


Institute of International Studies. (1997). Universalism vs. Relativism in human rights: Implications for human rights practice. Female Circumcision/Genital mutilation. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/humanrights/bibliographies/univbib.fgm.html


Islam, M. M., & Uddin, M. M. (2001). Female circumcision in Sudan: Future prospects and strategies for eradication. International Family Planning Perspectives, 27(2), 71-76.


Jackson, E. F., Akweongo, P., Sakeah, E., Hodgson, A., Asuru, R., & Phillips, J. F. (2003). Inconsistent reporting of female genital cutting status in Northern Ghana: Explanatory factors and analytical consequences. Studies in Family Planning, 34(3), 200-210.


James, S. M., & Robertson, C. C. (2004). Sorting out misunderstandings: Genital cutting and transnational sisterhood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33(1), 2-3.


Johansen, R. E. (2002). Pain as a counterpoint to culture: Toward an analysis of pain associated with infibulation among Somali immigrants in Norway. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 16(3), 312-340.

Johansen, R.E. (2006). Care for infibulated women giving birth in Norway: An anthropological analysis of health workers' management of a medically and culturally unfamiliar issue. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(4), 516-544.

Johnsdotter, S. (2003). Somali women in western exile: Reassessing female circumcision in the light of Islamic teachings. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23(2), 361-373.

Johnsdotter, S. (2005). It is only a tradition: Making sense of Swedish Somalis' narratives of female circumcision and avoiding submission to hegemonic political discourse. Critical Social Policy, 25(4), 577-595.
Johnson, K.E., Rodgers, S. (1994). When cultural practices are health risks: The dilemma of female circumcision, Holistic Nursing Practice, 8(2), 70-78.
Jones, W. K., Smith, J., Kieke, B. Jr., & Wilcox, L. (1997). Female genital mutilation. Female circumcision. Who is at risk in the U.S.? Public Health Reports, 112(5), 368-377.

Kamien, M., & Gubbay, S. S. (1999). Female genital mutilation and the use of unsighted references. The Medical Journal of Australia, 171(6), 336.

Kaplan-Marcusan, A., Toran-Monserrat, P., Moreno-Navarro, J., Fabregas, M.J.C., & Munoz-Ortiz, L. (2009). Perception of primary health professionals about female genital mutilation: From healthcare to intercultural competence. BMC Health Services Research, 9, 11-18.

Lane, S. D., & Rubinstein, R. A. (1996). Judging the other: Responding to traditional female genital surgeries. The Hastings Center Report, 26(3), 31-40.


Leonard, L. (2000). Interpreting female genital cutting: Moving beyond the impasse. Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 158-191.


Leval, A., Widmark, C., Tishelman, C., & Maina, B. (2004). The encounters that rupture the myth: Contradictions in midwives' descriptions and explanations of circumcised women immigrants' sexuality. Health Care for Women International, 25(8), 743-760.


Levin, T. (2002). Internet-Based Resources on female genital mutilation. From the Femenist Collections University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/fc/fcwebfgm.htm


Levin, T. (2003). Female genital mutilation and human rights. Comparative American Studies, 1(3), 285-316.

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa. New York: Haworth Press.

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in the Sudan. The Journal of Sex Research, 26(3), 375-392.


Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). An odyssey into female genital mutilation in Africa. New York: Haworth Press.


Lightfoot-Klein, H., & Shaw, E. (1991). Special needs of ritually circumcised women patients. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 20(2), 102-107. Retrieved July 14, 2008, from  http://www.cirp.org/pages/female/lightfoot-klein1/


Little, C. (2003). Female Genital Circumcision: Medical and cultural considerations. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(1), 30-34.

Logmans, A., Verhoeff, A., Raap, R. B., Creighton, F., & van Lent, M. (1998). Should doctors reconstruct the vaginal introitus of adolescent girls to mimic the virginal state? Who wants the procedure and why. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 316(7129), 459-460.
Lundberg, P.C. & Gerezgiher, A. (2008). Experiences from pregnancy and childbirth related to female genital mutilation among Eritean immigrant women in Sweden. Midwifery, 24(2), 214-225. 

Magied, A.A. and S.M. Ahmed. (2003). Sudan: Sexual experiences and psychosexual effect of FGM. Women's International Network News, 29(3), 30.


Mandara, M. U. (2004). Female genital mutilation in Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 84(3), 291-298.

McCaffrey, M. (1995, April). Female genital mutilation: Consequences for reproductive and sexual health. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 10(2), 189-200.

McCaffrey, M., Jankowska, A., & Gordon, H. (1995). Management of female genital mutilation: The Northwick Park Hospital experience. British Journal Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 102(10), 787-790.


McCleary, P. H. (1994). Female genital mutilation and childbirth: A case report. Birth, 21(4), 221-223.


McNamara, R. (1991). Female genital health and the risk of HIV transmission. For the United Nations HIV and Development Programme. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.undp.org/hiv/publications/issues/english/issue03e.htm


Megafu, V. (1983). Female ritual circumcision in Africa: An investigation of the presumed benefits among Igbos of Nigera. East African Medical Journal, 60(11), 793-800.


Mohamud, A.A., Ali, N.A., & Yinger, M.V. (1999). Female genital mutilation programmes to date: What works and what doesn't. A review. Geneva: WHO (World Health Organization), Department of Women's Health, Health Systems and Community Health. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/fgm/fgm_programmes_review.pdf


Moller, B. R., & Hansen, U. D. (2003). Foreign bodies as a complication of female genital mutilation. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 23(4), 449-450.


Momoh, C. (2001). Most of the women have been circumcised and I am concerned as there are several little girls approaching the age of circumcision. Nursing Times, 97(45), 35.


Momoh, C. (2004). Female genital mutilation. Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 16(6), 477-480.


Momoh, C. (2004). Attitudes to female genital mutilation. British Journal of Midwifery, 12(10), 631-635.

Momoh, C. (2006). Female genital mutilation: Analysis of the first twelve months of a Southeast London specialist clinic. Abingdon, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.
Monahan, K. (2008). Cultural beliefs, human rights violations, and female genital cutting: Complication at the crossroad of progress. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 5(3), 21-35.

Morison, L. A., Dirir, A., Elmi A., Warsame, J., & Dirir, S. (2004). How experiences and attitudes relating to female circumcision vary according to age on arrival in Britain: A study among Somalis in London. Ethnicity & Health, 9(1), 75-100.

Morison, L., Scherf, C., Ekpo, G., Paine, K., West, B., Coleman, R., & Walraven, G. (2001). The long-term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: A community-based study. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 6(7), 1-11. 

Morris, R. (1996). The culture of female circumcision. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(2), 43-53.


Morris, R. I. (1999). Female genital mutilation: Perspectives, risks, and complications. Urologic Nursing, 19(1), 13-19.


Musse, I. A. (2002). The Angel Returns: Changing the Tradition of Female Circumcision (DVD: 50 min.).  New York, N.Y.: Filmmakers Library.


Mwangi, R., & Smith-Stoner, M. (2002). Caring for the patient who has undergone female circumcision. Home Healthcare Nurse, 20(1), 30-35.


Ng, F. (2000). Female genital mutilation; Its implication for reproductive health. An overview. The British Journal of Family Planning, 26(1), 47-51.


Nicol-Wilson, M. (2000). Ending female genital mutilation without human rights: Two approaches--Sierra Leone. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.cceia.org/resources/publications/dialogue/2_03/articles/631.html

Nicoletti, A. (2007). Perspectives on pediatric and adolescent gynecology from the Allied Health professional. Journal of Pediatric Adolescent Gynecology, 20(4), 261-262.

Nour, N. M. (2004). Female genital cutting: Clinical and cultural guidelines. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 59(4), 272-279.


Nour, N. M., Michels, K. B., & Bryant, A. E. (2006). Defibulation to treat female genital cutting: Effect on symptoms and sexual function. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 108(1), 55-60.

Nour, N.M. (2000). Female circumcision and genital mutilation: A practical and sensitive approach. Contemporary OB/GYN, 45(3), 50-55.

Ntiri, D.W. (1993). Circumcision and health among rural women of Southern Somalia as part of a family life survey. Health Care for Women International, 14(3), 215-226.


Obermeyer, C. M. (1999). Female genital surgeries: The known, the unknown, and the unknowable. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), 79-106.


Obermeyer, C. M. (2003). The health consequences of female circumcision: Science, advocacy, and standards of evidence. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17(3), 394-412.


Obermeyer, C. M. (2005). The consequences of female circumcision for health and sexuality: An update on the evidence. Culture, Health, & Sexuality, 7(5), 443-461.


Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues. (2001). Prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); Laws prohibiting FGM and their enforcement; Recommendations on how to best work to eliminate FGM. (51 pages). Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/9424.pdf

Ogunsiji, O.O., Wilkes, L, & Jackson, D. (2007). Female genital mutilation: Origin, beliefs, prevalence, and implications for health care workers caring for immigrant women in Australia. Contemporary Nurse, 25(1-2), 22-30.  
Pascal, C. (2004). Mental and physical health of women subjected to genital mutilation: Challenges for intervention in Quebec. Intervention, 121, 112-119.

PATH. (2005). RHO archives. An international, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization. This site has a bibliography of Harmful Traditional Health Practices in Reproductive Health. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.rho.org/html/hthps_bibliography.htm.

Patrick, I. (2001). Responding to female genital mutilation: The Australian experience in context. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 36(1), 15-33.

Porterfield, S. P. (2006). Female genital cutting. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 2(4), 256-260.


Powell, R. A., Leye, E., Jayakody, A., Mwangi-Powell, F. N., & Morison, L. (2004). Female genital mutilation, asylum seekers and refugees: The need for an integrated European Union agenda. Health Policy, 70(2), 151-162.

Rahman, A. & Toubiam N, (2000). Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide. London: Zed Books.
RAINBO. (n.d.). Health & Rights for African Women. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.rainbo.org/

Ras-Work, B. (2006). The impact of harmful traditional practices on the girl child. (13 pages). Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/elim-disc-viol-girlchild/ExpertPapers/EP.4%20%20%20Raswork.pdf

Rawlings, A. K., & Cameron, J. (2000). Female genital mutilation: A global perspective. British Journal of Midwifery, 8(12), 754-60.

Reichert, G. A. (1998). Female circumcision. Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) Lifelines, 2(3), 28-34.


Renshaw, D. C. (2006). Male and female circumcision today. The Family Journal, 14(3), 283-285.


Richards, D. (2000). Controversial Issues: Female genital mutilation. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 19(4), 79-88.


Rizvi, S.A., Naqvi, S. A., Hussain, M., & Hasan, A. S. (1999). Religious circumcision: A Muslim view. British Journal of Urology International, 85(Suppl 1), 13-16.

Rubin, E.A. (2000). When cultures collide: An exploration of cultural competence and cross-cultural communication between American medical providers and immigrant women who have been circumcised.  (Doctoral Dissertation, 232 pages). Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Available for purchase at: https://secure.umi.com/dissertations/cart

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