Food, Nutrition and Culture

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Aarnio, K. & Lindeman, M. (2004). Magical food and health beliefs: A portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs. Appetite, 43(1), 65-74.
Abdussalam, M. & Kaferstein, F. (1996). Food beliefs and taboos. World Health, 49(2), 10-13.
Achaya, K.T. (1994). Indian food: A historical companion. Oxford, England: University Press, Delhi.
Adapting the food guide pyramid for ethnic foods. (1996). Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 16(1), 39-42.
Adish, A.A., Esrey, S.A., et al. (1999). Effect of consumption of food cooked in iron pots on iron status and growth of young children: A randomised trial. The Lancet, 353(9154), 712-716.
Ahmed, S. (1999). Coronary heart disease: The Indian Asian diet. Nursing Standard, 13(27), 45-47.
Airhihenbuwa, C.O., Kumanyika, S.,et al. (1996). Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. Ethnicity and Health, 1(3), 245-260.
Al-Kanhal, M.A., & Bani, I.A. (1995). Food habits during pregnancy among Saudi Women. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 65(3), 206-210.
American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Resources for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Retrieved July 23, 2008, from
American Dietetic Association. (2007). Position if the American Dietetic Association: Total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107, 1224-1232.  
American Dietetic Association. (2008). Diversity resource list. A resource list to help find nutrition education resources for various population groups. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
Anderson, E.N.J. (1987). Why is humoral medicine so popular? Social Science & Medicine, 25(4), 331-337.
Arcia, E. (1998). Latino parents' perception of their children's health status. Social Science & Medicine, 46(10), 1271-1274.
Backstrand, J.R., Allen, L.H., et al. (1997). Examining the gender gap in nutrition: An example from rural Mexico. Social Science & Medicine, 44(11), 1751-1759.
Barer-Stein, T. (1999). You eat what you are: People, culture and food traditions. Buffalo: Firefly Books.
Barker, L. (Ed). (1982). The psychobiology of human food selection. Westport, CT: AVI.
Beardsworth, A.& Keil, T. (1997). Sociology on the menu: An invitation to the study of food and society. New York: Routledge.
Berry-Koch, A., Moench, R., Hakewill, P., & Dualeh, M. (1990). Public health nutrition: Alleviation of nutritional deficiency in refugees. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 12(2). Retrieved February 3, 2009 from
Bertorelli, A.M. (1990). Nutrition counseling: Meeting the needs of ethnic clients with diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 16(4), 285-286, 289.
Borchers, A., Hackman, R.M., et al. (1997). Complementary medicine: A review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(6), 1303-1312.
Bosley, G.C. & Hardinge, M.G. (1992). Seventh-day adventists: Dietary standards and concerns. Food Technology, 46(10), 112-113.
Broach, J., & Newton, N. (1988). Food and beverages in labor. Part II: The effects of cessation of oral intake during labor. Birth, 15, 88-92.
Broach, J. & Newton, N. (1988). Food and beverages in labor. Part I: Cross-cultural and historical practices. Birth, 15(2), 81-85.
Bronner, Y. (1994). Cultural sensitivity and nutrition counseling. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 9(2), 13-19.
Brown, T.L. (2003). Meal-planning strategies: Ethnic populations. Diabetes Spectrum, 16(3), 190-192.
Brunt, M.J., Milbauer, M.J., et al. (1998). Health status and practices of urban Caribbean Latinos with diabetes mellitus. Ethnicity & Disease, 8(2), 158-166.
Bryant, C.A. (1985). The cultural feast: An introduction to food and society. St. Paul, MN: West.
Burns, C. (2004). Effect of migration on food habits of Somali women living as refugees in Australia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 43(3), 213-229.
Burns, C., Webster, K., Crotty, P., Ballinger, M., et al. (2000). Easing the transition: Food and nutrition issues of new arrivals. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 10(1), 230-236.
Burroughs, A.L. & Chan, J. (1972). Iron content of some Mexican-American foods: Effect of cooking in iron, glass, or aluminum utensils. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 60(2), 124-126.
Caldwell, L. (2002). The taste of nationalism: Food politics in postsocialist Moscow. Ethnos, 67(3), 295-319.
Cao, J., Bai, X., et al. (1996). The relationship of fluorosis and brick tea drinking in Chinese Tibetans. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(2), 1340-1343.
Carter-Edwards, L., Bynoe, M.J., & Svetkey, L.P. (1998). Knowledge of diet and blood pressure among African Americans: Use of focus groups for questionnaire development. Ethnicity and Disease, 8(2), 184-197.
Cassel, J. (1957). Social and cultural implications of food and food habits. American Journal of Public Health, 47, 732-740. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from
Cavan, K.R., Gibson, B.L., et al. (1996). Fish consumption by Vietnamese women immigrants: A comparison of methods. Archives of Environmental Health, 51(6), 452-457.
Cerrato, P. L. (1993). Suggest diets with a difference... taking ethnic food preferences into account. RN, 56(2), 67-72.
Cerrato, P.L. (1996). Customize diets with culture in mind. Office Nurse, 9(4), 22-23, 26.
Cervellon, M-C. & Dube, L. (2005). Cultural influences in the origins of food likings and dislikes. Food Quality and Preference, 16(5), 455-460.
Chan, J.Y. (1995). Dietary beliefs of Chinese patients. Nursing Standard, 9(27), 30-34.
Chang, K.C. (1977). Chinese culture: Anthropological and historical perspectives. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Chau, P., Lee, H., Tsang, R., & Downes, N.J. (1990). Dietary habits, health beliefs, and food practices of elderly Chinese women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90(4), 579-580.
Chaudry, M. M. (1992). Islamic food laws: Philosophical basis and practical implications. Food Technology, 46(10), 92-93.
Cheung, N.F. (1996). Diet therapy in the postnatal period: From a Chinese perspective. Midwives, 109(1302), 190-193.
Chiva, M. (1997). Cultural aspects of meals and meal frequency. British Journal of Nutrition, 77(1), S21-S28.
Cho, J. K., Kim, K., & Yu, E. (1998). Knowledge and beliefs about the association between diet and cancer among Korean immigrants in the U.S.A. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education, 15, 133-149.
Chowdhury, A.M., Helman, C., & Greenhalgh, T. (2000). Food beliefs and practices among British Bangladeshis with diabetes: Implications for health education. Anthropology and Medicine, 7(2), 209-226.
Chu, G.S., Palmieri, J.R., et al. (1977). Beetle-eating: A Malaysia folk medical practice and its public health implications. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 29(4), 422-427.
Collins, O., Airhihenbuwa, S.K., et al. (1996). Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. Ethnicity & Health, 1(3), 245-260.
Community Nutrition Unit, Annerley Road Community Health, & Queensland Health. (n.d.). Healthy food in first seven days - resource 1b of 5 resources. Provides meal plans for Eritrean, Sierra Leonean, Middle Eastern, Sudanese, Burundain/Rwandan, and Karen-Burmese groups. (9 pages). Retrieved July 10, 2008, from
Cooper, E. (1986). Chinese table manners: You are how you eat. Human Organization, 45(2), 179-184.
Corbett, K.S. (1999). Infant feeding styles of West Indian women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(1), 22-30.
Corlett, J.L. & Clegg, M.S. (2002). Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 53(2), 117-128.
Counihan, C. & Esterik, P.V. (Eds.). (1997). Food and culture: A reader. New York: Routledge.
Crane, N.T. (1983). Nutritional status of Hispanic Americans. Public Health Currents, 23(5), 4-7.
Critser, G. (2003). Fat land: How Americans became the fattest people in the world. Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin.
Crotty, P. (1998). The Mediterranean diet as a food guide: The problem of culture and history. Nutrition Today, 33(6), 227-232.
Csergo, J. (1999). The emergence of regional cuisines. In J. Flandrin & M. Montanari (Eds.), Food: A culinary history (pp. 500-515). New York: Columbia University Press.
Culhane-Pera, K.A., Naftali, E.D., Jacobson, C., & Xiong, Z.B. (2002). Cultural feeding practices and child-raising philosophy contribute to iron-deficiency anemia in refugee Hmong children. Ethnicity and Disease, 12(2), 199-205.
Curry, K.R. (2000). Multicultural competence in dietetics and nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100(10), 1142-1143.
Dahl, M. (2004). Working with Puerto Rican clients. Health Care Food & Nutrition Focus, 21(3), 10-12.
Dahl, M. (2004). Nutrition and Bosnian culture. Health Care Food & Nutrition Focus, 21, 10-12.
Dahl, M. (2004). Indian culture and nutrition. Health Care Food & Nutrition Focus, 21(6), 10-12.
Dahl, M. (2004). Cross-cultural competence. Health Care Food & Nutrition Focus, 21(1), 7-9.
Dalsheimer, J. (1999). Issues of eating disorders in African-American women: A literature review. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 11(1), 25-28.
Davis, C. & Yager, J. (1992). Transcultural aspects of eating disorders: A critical literature review. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 16(3), 377-394.
de Garine, I. (1993). Obesity in a multicultural perspective. In C. Geissler & D. J. Oddy (Eds.), Food, diet, and economic change past and present (pp. 175-182).  Leicester, England: Leicester University Press.
de, Garine, I. (2001). Views about food prejudice and stereotypes. Anthropology of Food, 40(3), 487-507.
Delamont, S. (1983). Lobster, chicken, cake and tears: Deciphering wedding meals. In A. Murcott (Ed.), The sociology of food and eating: Essays on the sociological significance of food (pp. 141-151). Aldershot, England: Gower.
Devine, C.M., Sobal, J., et al. (1999). Food choices in three ethnic groups: Interactions of ideals, identities, and roles. Journal of Nutrition Education, 31(2), 86-93.
Devine, C.M., Wolfe, W.S., et al. (1999). Life-course events and experiences: Association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(3), 309-314.
Dirks, R. (n.d.). World food habits bibliography. Resources for the Anthropological Study of food habits. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
Dirks, R. (n.d.). World food habits English-language resources for the anthropology of food and nutrition. Retrieved July 23, 2008, from
Djazayeri, A., Siassi, F., & Kholdi, N. (1992). Food behavior and consumption patterns in rural areas of Sirjan, Iran. Dietary patterns, energy and nutrients intakes and food ideology. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 28, 105-117.
Douglas, J. (1989). Food type preferences and trends among Afreo-Caribbeans in Britain. In J. K. Cruickshank & D. G. Beevers (Eds.), The ethnic factors in health and disease (pp. 249-254). London: Wright.
Duchon, D. A. (1999). Nutrition education for New Americans Project. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from
Duyff, R.L., Sanjur, D., & Nelson, H.Y. (1975). Food behavior and related factors of Puerto Rican American teenagers. Journal of Nutrition Education, 7, 99-103.
Dwyer, R. (2004). Editorial: The cultural meaning of food in South Asia. South Asia Research, 24(1), 5-7.
Edmons, V.M. (2005). The nutritional patterns of recently immigrated Honduran women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 16(3), 226-235.
Ehret, D. (2002). Becoming more culturally sensitive. Health Care Food Nutrition Focus, 18(7), 10-12.
Elder, J., Sallis, J.F., et al. (1999). Factors affecting selection of restaurants by Anglo- and Mexican-American families. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(7), 856-858.
Elder, J.P., Candelaria, J., et al. (1998). Initial results of 'Language for Health': Cardiovascular disease nutrition education for English-as-a-Second-Language students. Health Education Research, 13(4), 567-575.
ElGindy, G. (2005). Cultural competence. Understanding Buddhist patients' dietary needs: Because immigrants from Asian countries with large Buddhist populations are a rapidly growing minority group in the U.S., it's important for nurses to understand Buddhist patients' beliefs about health, illness, and food. Minority Nurse, 49-52. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from
ElGindy, G. (2005). Cultural competence Q&A. Meeting Jewish and Muslim patients' dietary needs: Nurses' sensitivity to these patients' religious dietary requirements--and how strictly each individual patient chooses to follow them--can play an important role in the healing process. Minority Nurse, 56-58. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from
Elkort, M. (1991). The secret life of food: A feast of food and drink history, folklore, and fact. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher.
Escobar, A. (1999). Are all food pyramids created equal? Family Economics and Nutrition Review, 12(Winter), 75-77. (2006). Welcome to Ethnicgrocer. Everything about ethnic foods and ingredients, international holiday traditions, religious diets, regional customs, recipes, fun food facts & cultural nutrition resources. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
Evert, A.B. (1999). Ethnic and regional food practices: A series. Diabetes Spectrum, 12(1), 56, 59.
Fagerli, R. A. A., Lien, M. E., Botten, G. S., & Wandel, M. (2005). Role dilemmas among health-workers in cross-cultural patient encounters around dietary advice. Scandanavian Journal of Public health, 33(5), 360-369.
Ferro-Luzzi, A. & Branca, F. (1995). Mediterranean diet, Italian-style: Prototype of a healthy diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(6), 1338S-1345S.
Fieldhouse, P. (1986). Food and nutrition: Customs and culture. Dover, NH: Croom Helm.
Fischler, C. (1999). The 'McDonaldization' of culture. In J. Flandrin & M. Montanari (Eds.), Food: A culinary history (pp. 531-547). New York: Columbia University Press.
Fishman, C., Evans, R., et al. (1988). Warm bodies, cool milk: Conflicts in post partum food choice for Indochinese women in California. Social Science & Medicine, 26(11), 1125-1132.
Food & culture -Africa. (2008). Bibliography for study on African food and culture. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
Food and Nutrition Information Center. (2008). Cultural and ethnic food and nutrition materials: A resource list for educators. From the National Agricultural Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (31 pages). Retrieved June 26, 2008, from
Freedman, R.L. (1981). Human food uses: A cross-cultural, comprehensive annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Freedman, R.L. (1983). Human food uses: A cross-cultural comprehensive annotated bibliography, supplement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Freimer, N., Echenberg, D., et al. (1983). Cultural variation--nutrition and clinical implications. Western Journal of Medicine, 139, 928-933.
Gee, C. & Vargas, M. (1988). Chinese American. In C. Patel & M. Denny (Eds.), Cultural foods and renal diets for the clinical dietitian. San Mateo, CA: National Kidney Foundation of Northern California.
Gifford, K.D. (1998). The Mediterranean diet as a food guide: The problem of culture and history: A comment. Nutrition Today, 33(6), 233-243.
Glants, M. & Toomre, J. (1997). Food in Russian history and culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gomel, J.N. & Zamora, A. (2007). English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 9(4), 359-367.
Gonzales, N. (1966). Filipino culture and food habits. Philippine Journal of Nutrition, 19, 194-201.
Gordon, B.H.J., Kang, M.S.Y., Cho, P., & Sucher, K.P. (2000). Dietary habits and health beliefs of Korean-Americans in the San Francisco Bay area. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100(10), 1198-1201.
Gorodetskaya, I., Matel, J., et al. (2000). Issues in renal nutrition for persons from the former Soviet Union. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 10(2), 98-102.
Greenberg, M.R., Schneider, D., et al. (1998). Region of birth and black diets: The Harlem Household Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 88(8), 1199-1202.
Greenhalgh, T., Helman, C., et al. (1998). Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: A qualitative study. British Medical Journal, 316(7136), 978-983.
Grivetti, L. (1995). Morning meals: North American and Mediterranean breakfast patterns: The European Anglo-Saxon heritage. Nutrition Today, 30(1), 24-29.
Grunert, K.G. (1997). What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef. Food Quality and Preference, 8(3), 157-174.
Guendelman, S. & Abrams, B. (1994). Dietary, alcohol, and tobacco intake among Mexican-American women of childbearing age: Results from HANES data. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(5), 363-372.
Gunaratnam, Y. (2001). Eating into multiculturalism: Hospice staff and service users talk food, 'race', ethnicity, culture and identity. Critical Social Policy, 21(3), 287-310.
Guthman, J. (2003). Fast food--organic food: Reflexive tastes and the making of yuppie chow. Social and Cultural Geography, 4(1), 45-58.
Haq, A.S. (2003). Report on Somali Diet. Common dietary beliefs and practices of Somali participants in WIC  nutrition education groups. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from
Hardinge, F., & Hardinge, M. (1992). The vegetarian perspective and the food industry. Food Technology, 46(10), 114-116,121.
Harris, M. & Ross, E.B. (1987). Food and culture: Towards a theory of human food habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Harris, M. (1992). The cultural ecology of India's sacred cattle. Current Anthropology, 33(1), S261-S276.
Harris, M. (1998). Good to eat: Riddles of food and culture. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Hartini, T.N.S., Padmawati, R.S., Lindholm, L., Surjono, A., & Winkvist, A. (2005). The importance of eating rice: Changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis. Social Science & Medicine, 61(1), 199-210.
Hartley, B. A., & Hamid, F. (2002). Investigation into the suitability and accessibility of catering practices to inpatients from minority ethnic groups in Brent. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 15(3), 203-209.
Hassel, C.A. (2006). Woodlands wisdom: A nutrition program interfacing indigenous and biomedical epistemologies. Journal of Food Science & Behavior, 38(2), 114-120.
Haudek, C., Rorty, M., et al. (1999). The role of ethnicity and parental bonding in the eating and weight concerns of Asian-American and Caucasian college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25(4), 425-433.
Henquin, N., Trostler, N., et al. (1994). Nutritional risk factors and breast cancer in Jewish and Arab women. Cancer Nursing, 17(4), 326-333.
Horswill, L.J. & Yap, C. (1999). Consumption of foods from the WIC food packages of Chinese prenatal patients on the US west coast. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(12), 1549-1553.
Huang, Y-W., & Ang, C.Y.W. (1992). Vegetarian foods for Chinese Buddhists. Food Technology, 46(10), 105-106,108.
Hung, S.S., McPhee, S.J., et al. (1995). Dietary intake patterns of Vietnamese in California. Journal of Nutrition Education, 27(2), 63-68.
Hunger Action Network of New York State. (2002). Publications and Reports. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from
Huntington, S. (2000, August 8). Who wants bugs for lunch? The Christian Science Monitor, pp. 18-19.
IIechukwu, S. T. (1985). Food dreams and illness among Nigerians: A pilot study. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 10(2), 84-89.
Ikeda, J. (1998). Hmong American food practices, customs, and holidays. Chicago: American Dietetic Association.
Ikeda, J.P., Ceja, D.R., Glass, R.S., Harwood, J.O., Lucke, K.A., & Sutherland, J.M. (1991). Food habits of the Hmong living in central California. Journal of Nutrition Education, 23(4), 168-174.
Institute of Food Science & Technology - IFST. (2008). Welcome to the IFST - IFST for food professionals. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
Ishihara, J., Bobitt, N., et al. (1999). Typical food selections of Japanese children living in the United States: Comparison with the recommendations of the USDA food guide pyramid. Ecology of Food and Nutrition: An International Journal, 37(6), 503.
James, D.C. (2004). Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related attitudes among African Americans: Application of a culturally sensitive model. Ethnicity and Health, 9(4), 349-367.
Jarosz, L.A. (1990). Intercultural communication in assessing dietary habits: Liberia as an example. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90(8), 1094-1099.
Jerome, N.W. (1997). Culture-specific strategies for capturing local dietary intake patterns. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(4), 1166S-1167S.
Jones, S. & Taylor, B. (2001). Food writing and food cultures: The case of Elizabeth David and Jane Grigson. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 4(2), 171-188.
Jonsson, I.M., Wallin, A., Hallberg, L.R.M., & Gustafsson, I. (2002). Choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnian-Herzegovina: Focus group interviews with immigrant women in Sweden. Ethnicity and Health, 7(3), 149-162.
Kassam-Khamis, T., Nanchahal, K., et al. (1999). Development of an interview-administered food-frequency questionnaire for use amongst women of South Asian ethnic origin in Britain. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 12(1), 7-19.
Katz, S.H. & Weaver, W.W. (Eds.). (2003). Encyclopedia of food and culture. New York: Scribner.
Keller, C., Fleury, J., & Rivera, A. (2007). Visual methods in the assessment of diet intake in Mexican American women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 29(6), 758-773.
Kilara, A., & Iya, K.K. (1992). Food and dietary habits of the Hindu. Food Technology, 46(10), 94,96,98,100-102,104.
Kittler, P.G. & Sucher, K. (1995). Food and culture in America: A nutrition handbook. St. Paul, MN: West.
Kittler, P.G. & Sucher, K.P. (1990). Diet counseling in a multicultural society. Diabetes Educator, 16(2), 127-134.
Kittler, P.G. & Sucher, K.P. (2004). Food and culture (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Kittler, P.G. & Sucher, K.P. (2004). Chapter 8: Africans. In Food and culture. (pp. 181- 203). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth Publishing
Kleinman, R.E. (2004). Cultural considerations in feeding children (5th ed). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
Koo, L.C. (1984). The use of food to treat and prevent disease in Chinese culture. Social Science & Medicine, 18(9), 757-766.
Koppe, G & Petersen, H. (n.d.). A Guide to Asian Vegetables. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from
Kreier, R. (1999). Crossing the cultural divide. American Medical News, 42(4), 10(1).
Kruseman, M., Barandereka, N.A., Hudelson, P., Stalder, H. (2005). Post-migration dietary changes among African refugees in Geneva: A rapid assessment study to inform nutritional interventions. Social and Preventative Medicine, 50(3), 161-165.
Kuczmarski, M. F. & Cole, R. P. (1999). Transcultural food habits travel courses: An interdisciplinary approach to teaching cultural diversity. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 15(1), 59-71.
Labadarios, D., Walker, A.R., et al. (1996). Traditional diets and meal patterns in South Africa. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 79, 70-108.
Laroche, M., Chankon, K., et al. (1999). Italian ethnic identity and its relative impact on the consumption of convenience and traditional foods. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(2), 125-151.
Lassiter, S.M. (1994). Black is a color, not a culture: Implications for health care. ABNF Journal, 5(1), 4-9.
Laverentz, M.L., Cox, C.C., et al. (1999). The Nuer Nutrition Education Program: Breaking down cultural barriers. Health Care for Women International, 20(6), 593-601.
Lawn, J., Langner, N., et al. (1998). Food consumption patterns of Inuit women. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 57(Suppl. 1), 198-204.
Lee, H., Tseng, R., et al. (1990). Dietary habits, health beliefs, and food practices of elderly Chinese women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90(4), 579-580.
Lee, M. (2001). Immigrant women's health: Nutritional assessment and dietary intervention. Western Journal of Medicine, 175(2), 133-137.
Lee, S., Sobal, J., & Frongillo, E.A. (1999). Acculturation and dietary practices among Korean Americans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(9), 1084-1089.
Lee, S., Sobal, J., et al. (1999). Acculturation, food consumption, and diet-related factors among Korean Americans. Journal of Nutrition Education, 31(6), 321-330.
Lefhber, Y. & Voorhoeve, H. (1999). Indigenous first feeding practices in newborn babies. Midwifery, 15(2), 97-100.
Leininger, M. (1994). Transcultural food functions, beliefs, and uses to guide nursing practice. In M. Leininger (Ed.), Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, research and practices (2nd ed., pp. 187-204). New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Lew-Ting, C. Y. (1997). Egg phobia in retirement homes: Health risk perceptions among elderly Chinese. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry: An International Journal of Comparative Cross-Cultural Research, 21(1), 27-51.
Lindeman, M., Keskivaara, P., & Roschier, M. (2000). Assessment of magical beliefs about food and health. Journal of Health Psychology, 5(2), 195-209.
Liu, L. C. (1991). Chinese system for food cures: Prevention and remedies. New York: Sterling.
Ludman, E.K. & Newman, J.M. (1984). Yin and yang in health-related food practices of three Chinese groups. Journal of Nutrition Education, 16, 3-5.
Ludman, E.K. & Newman, J.M. (1984). Yin and yang in health-related food practices of three Chinese groups. Journal of Nutrition Education, 16, 3-5,
Ludman, E.K. & Newman, J.M. (1984). Yin and yang in the health-related food practices of three Chinese groups. Journal of Nutrition Education, 16, 3-5.
Ludman, E.K., Kang, K.J., & Lynn, L.L. (1992). Food beliefs of pregnant Korean-American women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92(12), 1519-1520.
Ludman, E.K., Kang, K.J., et al. (1996). Breast-feeding determinants and postpartum food habits among Korean-American women. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 11(2), 53-59.
Ludman, E.K., Newman, J.M., & Lynn, L.L. (1989). Blood- building foods in contemporary Chinese populations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 89(8), 1122-1124.
Lupton, D. (2000). The heart of the meal: Food preferences and habits among rural Australian couples. Sociology of Health and Illness, 22(1), 94-109.
Lynn, L.L., Kang, K.J., & Ludman, E.K. (1999). Korean elderly: Diet, food beliefs, and acculturation. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 19(2), 1-16.
Lyon, W.F. (1994). Insects as human food. Ohio State University extension fact sheet, entomology. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from
MacClancy, J. (1993). Consuming culture: Why you eat what you eat. New York: H. Holt.
Macpherson-Sanchez, A.E. (1998). A food guide pyramid for Puerto Rico - Taste and health. Nutrition Today, 33(5), 198-209.
Manderson, L. & Mathews, M. (1981). Vietnamese behavioral and dietary precautions during pregnancy. Ecology of Food and Nutrition: An International Journal, 11(1), 1-8.
Maras, M.L., & Adolphi, C.L. (1985). Ethnic tailoring improves dietary compliance. Diabetes Educator, 10(4), 47-50.
Marquis, M. & Shatenstein, B. (2005). Food choice motives and the importance of family meals. Canadian Journal of Diabetic Practice and Research, 66(2), 77-81.
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