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Culturally Competent Care for Arabs or Muslims

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Abboud, C. (2005). Transcultural care: Some faces of the culture of Arabic patients. World Council of Enterostomal Therapists Journal, 25(4), 11-13.


Abdullah, L., Margolis, S., & Townsend, T. (2001). Primary health care patients' knowledge about diabetes in the United Arab Emirates. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 7(4-5), 662-670.


Abdullah, M. A. (1993). Traditional practices and other socio-cultural factors affecting the health of children in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Tropical Pediatrics, 13(3), 227-232.


Abdulrahim, S., & Ajrouch K. (2005). High-effort active coping and health outcomes among older Arab immigrants. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(1 suppl 1), S1-110.


Abou-Saleh, M. T. (1997). Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 8(1), 1-5.


Aboul-Enein, F. H. (2002). Personal contemporary observations of nursing care in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 8(4), 228-30.


Abu-Gharbieh, P. (1998). Arab-Americans. In L. D., Purnell, & B. J., Paulanka (Eds.). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach (pp. 137-162). Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis.


Abu-Ras, W. (2007). Cultural beliefs and serve utilization by battered Arab immigrant women. Violence Against Women, 13(10), 1002-1028.

Abu-Ras, W.M. (2003). Barriers to services for Arab immigrant battered women in a Detroit suburb. Journal of Social Work Research & Evaluation, 4, 49-66.

Abu-Saad, H. (1984). Cultural components of pain: The Arab American child. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 7(2-3), 91-99.


Abu-Saad, I. (1998). Individualism and Islamic work beliefs. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(2), 377-383.

Abudabbeh, N. & Hays, P.A. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with people of Arab heritage. In P.A. Hays & G. Iwamasa, Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy: Assessment, practice, and supervision (pp. 141-159). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Adib, S. M. (2004). From the biomedical model to the Islamic alternative: A brief overview of medical practices in the contemporary Arab world. Social Science & Medicine, 58(4), 697-702.


Adib, S. M., Al-Shatti, A. K., Kamal, S., et al. (2002). Violence against nurses in healthcare facilities in Kuwait. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39(4), 469-478.

Ahmed, Q.A., Memish, Z.A., Allegranzi, B., & Pittet, D. (2006, March 25). Muslim health-care workers and alcohol-based handrubs. The Lancet, 367, 1025-1027.
Ajrouch, KJ. (2007). Resources and well-being among Arab-American elders. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerentology, 22(2), 167-182.

Al'Ma'aitah, R., Haddad, L., & Umlauf, M. G. (1999). Health promotion behaviors of Jordanian women. Health Care for Women International, 20(6), 533-546.

Al-Adawi, S., Dorvlo, A.S., Al-Ismaily, S.S., et al. (2002). Perception of attitude towards mental illness in Oman. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 48(4), 305-317.  

Al-Hassan, M. A., & Omran, S. M. (2005). The effects of health beliefs on health care-seeking decisions of Jordanian patients with myocardial infarction symptoms. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 11(1), 13-20.

Al-Issa, I. (Ed.) (1999). Al-Junun: Mental Illness in the Islamic World. Madison, WI: International Universities Press, Inc.

Al-Kanhal, M. A., & Bani, I. A. (1995). Food habits during pregnancy among Saudi Women. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 65(3), 206-210.

Al-Krenawi, A. & Graham, J. (2000). Islamic theology and prayer: Relevance for psychology practice. International Psychology, 43(3), 289-304.
Al-Krenawi, A. & Graham, J.R. (1999). Social work and Koranic mental health healers. International Social Work, 42(1), 53-65.
Al-Krenawi, A. & Graham, J.R. (1999). Social work and Koranic mental health healers. International Social Work, 42(1), 53-65.

Al-Krenawi, A. (1998). Family therapy with a multiparental/multispousal family. Family Process, 37(1), 65-81.

Al-Krenawi, A. (1999). Integrating cultural rituals into family therapy: A case study with a Bedouin-Arab patient in Israel. Psychotherapy, 10(1), 61-73.

Al-Krenawi, A., & Graham, J. R. (2000). Culturally sensitive social work practice with Arab clients in mental health settings. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 9-22.


Al-Krenawi, A., Graham, J. R. (2006). A comparison of family functioning, life and marital satisfaction, and mental health of women in polygamous and monogamous marriages. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(1), 5-17.

Al-Krenawi, A., Graham, J.R., Dean, Y.Z., & Eltaiba, N. (2004). Cross-national study of attitudes towards seeking professional help: Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arabs in Israel. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50(2), 102-114.

Al-Krenawi, A., Slonim-Nevo, V., Maymon, Y., et al. (2001). Psychological responses to blood vengeance among Arab adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25(4), 457-472.

Al-Mateen, C.S. & Afzal, A. (2004). The Muslim child, adolescent, and family. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 13(1), 183-200.
Al-Oballi Kridli, S. & Libbus, K. (2001). Contraception in Jordan: A cultural and religious perspective. International Nursing Review, 48(3), 144-151. 

Al-Owaish, R., Moussa, M. A., Anwar, S., Al-Shoumer, H., & Sharma, P. (1999). Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices about HIV/AIDS in Kuwait. AIDS Education and Prevention, 11(2), 163-173.

Al-Shahri, M. (2002). Culture & medicine: The future of palliative care in the Islamic world. Western Journal of Medicine, 176, 60-61. 

Al-Shahri, M. Z. (2002). Culturally sensitive caring for Saudi patients. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(2), 133-138.

Al-Subaie, A. (1996). Psychiatry in Saudi Arabia; cultural perspectives. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 26, 245-262.

Alemi, A. A., & Mohseni, M. (1978). A causal concept of disease in an Iranian community. Journal of Biosocial Sciences, 10(4), 347-51.

Ali, O.M., Milstein, G., & Marzuk, P.M. (2005). The Imam's role in meeting the counseling needs of Muslim communities in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 56, 202-205. Retrieved July 20, 2008, from

Almqvist, K., & Hwang, P. (1999). Iranian refugees in Sweden: Coping processes in children and their families. Childhood, 6(2),167-188.


Almuzaini, A. S., Salek, M. S., Nicholls, P. J., et al. (1998). The attitude of health care professionals toward the availability of hospice services for cancer patients and their carers in Saudi Arabia. Palliative Medicine, 12(5), 365-373.

Aloud, N. (2004). Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward Seeking and Using Formal Mental Health and Psychological Services Among Arab-Muslims Population (Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2004). (145 pages). Retrieved April 14, 2009 from
Amin, Y., Hamdi, E., & AbouSalem, M. (2001). Depression in the Arab world. In A. Okasha & M. Maj (Eds.), Images in psychiatry: An Arab perspective. Cairo, Egypt: World Psychiatric Association.
Ammar, N.H. (2007). Wife battery in Islam: A comprehensive understanding of interpretations. Violence Against Women, 13(2), 516-526.
Anees, K. & Bedi, R. (2000). Transcultural oral health care: 4. Dental medication for Muslim patients. Dental Update, 27(9), 449-452.
Arab American Institute. (2004). Arab Americans. Links to About Arab Americans, Arab Americans on the move, Demographics, and Famous Arab Americans. Retrieved July 3, 2008, from

Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services. (1999). Guide to Arab Culture: Health Care Delivery to the Arab American Community. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from


Aroian, K. J., Katz, A., & Kulwicki, A. (2006). Recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim mothers and children for research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 38(3), 255-261.


Aswad, B., & Bilge, B. (1996). Family and gender among American Muslims. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.


Aswad, S., Souqiyyeh, M. Z., Huraib, S., & el-Shihabi, R. (1992). Public attitudes toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. Transplantation Proceedings, 24(5), 2056-2058.


Athar, S. (1999). Information for health care providers when dealing with a Muslim patient. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from


Awaad, T. (2003). Culture, cultural competency and occupational therapy: A review of the literature. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(8), 356-362.

Azizi, F. & Siahkolah, B. (1998). Ramadan fasting and diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Ramadan Fasting, 2, 8-17.

Baker, K. A., & Dwairy, M. (2003). Cultural norms verses state law in treating incest: A suggested model for Arab families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(1), 109-123.


Bappal, B., George, M., Nair, R., Al-Khusiby, S., & De-Silva, V. (2001). Factitious hypoglycemia: A tale from the Arab world. Pediatrics, 107(1), 180-2.


Barakat, H. (1993). The Arab World, Society, Culture, and State. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Baron-Epel, O., Granot, M., Badarna, S., & Avrami, S. (2004). Perceptions of breast cancer among Arab Israeli women. Women & Health, 40(2), 101-116.


Barrow, L. (2004). Ramadan and diabetes: helping to ensure safe fasting. Journal of Diabetes Nursing, 8(6), 227-231.


Barry, C., Elliott, R., & Evans, E. M. (2000). Foreigners in a strange land: Self-construal and ethnic identity in male Arabic immigrants. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2(3), 133-44.


Bates, D. G. (2001). Peoples and cultures of the Middle East. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Behzadi, K. G. (1994). Interpersonal conflict and emotions in an Iranian cultural practice: Qahr and ashti. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 18(3), 321-359.


Belkhadir, J., el Ghomari, H., Klocker, N., Mikou, A., Nasciri, M., & Sabri, M. (1993). Muslims with non-insulin dependent diabetes fasting during Ramadan: Treatment with glibenclamide. British Medical Journal, 307(6899), 292-295.


Bener, A., Alwash, R., Miller, C. J., Denic, S., & Dunn, E. V. (2001). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breast cancer screening: A survey of Arabic women. Journal of Cancer Education, 16(4), 215-220.


Bener, A., Galadari, S., Gillet, M., et al. (2001). Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan does not change the composition of breast milk. Nutrition Research, 21(6), 859-864.


Bener, A., Honein, G., Carter, A. O., et al. (2002). The determinants of breast cancer screening behavior: A focus group study of women in the United Arab Emirates. Oncology Nursing Forum, 29(9), E91-8.

Berlie, H.D., Herman, W.H., Brown, M.B., Hammad, A., & Jaber, L.A. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 79(2), 249-255. 
Boonstra, H. (2001). Islam, women, and family planning: A primer. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 4-7. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from
Boston Healing Landscape Project. (2008). Islam and health - General guidelines. Retrieved October 9, 2008 from

Bowen, D. L., & Early, E. A. (1993). Everyday life in the Muslim Middle East. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


Bowers, P. (2001). Cultural perspectives in childbearing. Nursing Spectrum, 11(14), 18-21.


Brooke, D., & Omeri, A. (1999). Beliefs about childhood immunization among Lebanese Muslim immigrants in Australia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(3), 229-236

Budman, C.L., Lipson, J.G., & Meleis, A.L. (1992). The cultural consultant in mental health care: The case of an Arab adolescent. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(3), 359-370.

Callister, L. C. (1995). Cultural meanings of childbirth. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 24(3), 327-331.


Callister, L. C. (2002). Culture care conflicts among Asian-Islamic immigrant women in United States hospitals. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 27(3), 194-196.


Callister, L. C., Vehvilainen-Julkunen, K., & Lauri, S. (1996). Cultural perceptions of childbirth: A cross-cultural comparison of childbearing women. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 14(1), 66-78.


Cameron-Traub, E., & Stewart, A. (1994). Clients from Eastern countries: A new worldview in Australian nursing. In G. Grey, & R. Pratt (Eds.), Issues in Australian nursing (pp: 115-128). Melbourne, Australia: Churchill Livingstone.

Campbell, E.A. & Guiao, I.Z. (2004). Muslim culture and female self-immolation: Implications for global women's health research and practice. Health Care for Women International, 25(9), 782-793.

Carlisle, D. (1995). Lifting the veil. Nursing Times, 91(37), 22-23.

Carter, D. & Rashidi, A. (2003). Theoretical model of psychotherapy: Eastern Asian-Islamic women with mental illness. Health Care for Women International, 24(5), 399-413.
Carter, D.J. & Rashidi, A. (2004). East meets West: Integrating psychotherapy approaches for Muslim women. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(3), 152-159.
Cassar, L. (2006). Cultural expectations of Muslims and Orthodox Jews in regard to pregnancy and the postpartum period: A study in comparison and contrast. IJCE: International Journal of Childbirth and Education, 21(2), 27-30.
Cassar, L. (2006). Cultural expectations of Muslims and Orthodox Jews in regard to pregnancy and the postpartum period: A study in comparison and contrast. IJCE: International Journal of Childbirth Education, 21(2), 27-30

Chaleby, K. (1992). Psychotherapy with Arab patients: Towards a culturally oriented technique. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 3(1), 16-27.


Chandalia, H. B., Bhargaav, A., & Kataria, V. (1987). Dietary pattern during Ramadan fasting and its effect on the metabolic control of diabetes. Practical Diabetes, 4(6), 287-290.


Cohen, M., & Azaiza, F. (2005). Early breast cancer detection practices, health beliefs, and cancer worries in Jewish and Arab women. Preventive Medicine, 41(506), 852-858.


Cohen, O., & Savaya, R. (1997). "Broken glass": The divorced women in Moslem Arab society in Israel. Family Process, 36(3), 225-245.


Cortis, J. D. (2000). Perceptions and experiences with nursing care: A study of Pakistani (Urdu) communities in the United Kingdom. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(2), 111-8.


Cross Cultural Health Care Program (1996). Voices of the Arab communities. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from (2008). Basic concepts and case studies: The Middle Eastern community. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from


Daar, A. S. (1991). Organ donation--world experience: The Middle East. Transplantation Proceedings, 23(5), 2505-2507.

Daly, E. B. (1995). Health meanings of Saudi women. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21(5), 853-857.

Daneshpour, M. (1998). Muslim families and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24(3), 355-368.

Daoud, A., Al-Safi, S., Otoom, S., Wahba, L., & Alkofahi, A. (2007). Public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Jordan. Seizure, 16(6), 521-526.

Dhami, S., & Sheikh, A. (2000). The Muslim family: Predicament and promise. Western Journal of Medicine, 173(5), 352-356.

Diabetes Australia & Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, Inc. (AFIC). (2004). Diabetes and fasting for Muslims A resource for health professionals. (5 pages). Retrieved June 26, 2008, from
Douki, S., Ben Zineb, S, Nacef, F., & Halbreich, U. (2007). Women's mental health in the Muslim world: Cultural, religious, and social issues. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102(1), 177-189.

Douki, S., Nacef, F., Belhadj, A., et al. (2003). Violence against women in Arab and Islamic countries. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 6(3), 165-171.

Droeber, J. (2003). "Woman to woman" - The significance of religiosity for young women in Jordan. Women's Studies International forum, 26(5), 409-424.
Dwairy, M. & Van Sickle, T.D. (1996). Western psychotherapy in traditional Arabic societies. Clinical Psychology Review, 16(5), 231-249. 

Dwairy, W., Achoui, M., Acouserie, R., Farah, A., et al. (2006). Parenting styles in Arab societies: A first cross-regional research study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(3), 230-247.


El-Adham, A. F. M. (2005). Childbirth pain experience recall of United States Arab immigrant women: A cross cultural comparison. Doctoral dissertation, George Mason University.


El-Islam, M. F. (1995). Cultural aspects of illness behavior. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 13-18.


El-Shamy, H. (1981). The brother-sister syndrome in Arab family life, sociocultural factors in Arab psychiatry: A critical review. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 11(2), 313-323.


ElGindy, G. (2004). Cultural competence Q & A. Treating Muslims with cultural sensitivity in a post-9/11 world. Minority Nurse, 44-46.


Erickson, C. D., & Al-Timmi, N. R. (2001). Providing mental health services to Arab Americans: Recommendations and considerations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(4), 308-327.


Ertem, I. O., Kaynak, G., Kaynak, C., Ulukol, B., & Gulnar, S. B. (2001). Attitudes and practices of breastfeeding mothers regarding fasting in Ramadan. Child: Care, Health and Development, 27(6), 545-554.


Feghali, E. (1997). Arab cultural communication patterns. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(3), 345-378.


Fluehr-Lobban, C. (1994). Islamic society in practice. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Fonte, J. & Horton-Deutsch, S. (2005). Treating postpartum depression in immigrant Muslim women. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 11(1), 39-44.

Fontes, L. (2003). Re: Cultural norms versus state law in treating incest: A suggested model for Arab families, by K. Abu Baker and M. Dwairy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12). 1335-1336.


Forman, M. R., Hundt, G. L., Towne, D., et al. (1990). The forty day rest period and infant feeding practices among Bedouin Arabs in the Negev. Medical Anthropology, 12, 207-216.

Friedman, K. (1979). Learning the Arabs' silent language: Edward T. Hall interviewed by Kenneth Friedman. Psychology Today, 13(3), 44-54.

Galanti, G. A. (2000). Iranian births. Western Journal of Medicine, 173(1), 67-68.


Gatrad, A. A. (1994). Attitudes and beliefs of Muslim mothers towards pregnancy and infancy. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71(2), 559-560.

Gatrad, A.R. & Sheikh, A. (2005). Hajj: Journey of a lifetime. British Medical Journal, 330(7483), 133-137

Gharaibeh, M. (1995). Maternal knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices relating to child immunization among Jordanian mothers (Unpublished doctor's dissertation). Northern Ireland: University of Ulster.


Gharaibeh, M., Al-Ma'aitah, R., & Al Jada, N. (2005). Lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women. International Nursing Review, 52(2), 92-100.


Ghubash, R., Abou-Saleh, M. (1997). Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 65-68.

Gorkin, M. (1985). Psychotherapy of Israel-Arab patients: Some cultural considerations. The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology, 8, 215-233.

Govaerts, K., & Patino, E. (1981). Attachment behavior of the Egyptian mother. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 18(1), 53-60.

Graham, J.R., Bradshaw, C., & Trew, J.L. (2008). Social worker's understanding of the immigrant Muslim client's perspective. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 3(2), 125-144.

Gray, A. J., Ezzart, A., Boyar, A., et al. (1997). Palliative care for the terminally ill in Saudi Arabia. In C. M. Saunders & R. Kastenbaum (Eds.), Hospice care on the international scene. New York: Springer.


Green, J. (1989). Death with dignity--Islam. Nursing Times, 85(5), 56-57.


Gruenbaum, E. (2001). The female circumcision controversy: An anthropological perspective. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.


Haddad, L. G., & Hoeman, S. P. (2000). Home healthcare and the Arab-American client. Home Healthcare Nurse, 18(3), 189-197.


Haddad, L., Al-Ma'aitah, R., & Umlauf, M. (1999). Health promotion behaviors among Jordanians. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 18(2), 223-235.

Hadidi, M., Kulwicki, A., & Jahshan, H. (2001). A review of 16 cases of honour killings in Jordan in 1995. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 114(6), 357-359. 
Hairon, M. (2007). Guidance on healthy fasting during the month of Ramadan. Nursing Times, 103(40), 21-22.
Haj-Yahia, M. (1995). Toward culturally sensitive intervention with Arab families in Israel. Contemporary Family Therapy, 17(4), 429-447.
Halevi, L. (2007). Muhammad's grave: Death rites and the making of Islamic society. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hall, E.T. (1979). Learning the Arabs' silent language. Interviewed by Friedman, K. Psychology Today, 13, 44-54. 
Hall, R. & Livingston, J. (2006).  Mental health practice with Arab families: The implications of spirituality vis-a-vis Islam.  The American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(2), 139-150.

Hall, R. E., & Livingston, J. N. (2006). Mental health practice with Arab afmilies: The implications of spirituality vis-a-vis Islam. American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(2), 139-150.


Halligan, P. (2006). Caring for patients of Islamic denomination: Critical care nurses' experiences in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15(12), 1565-1573.


Hammad, A., Nriagu, J. O., Savoie, K., Johnson, M., & Jamil, H. (2005). Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about environmental diseases among Arab-American communities in the Detroit area. Ethnicity & Disease, 15(1 suppl 1), s49-51.


Hammad, R. (1997). The Hospice experience in Jordan: Al-Malath foundation for humanistic care. In C. M. Saunders & R. Kastenbaum (Eds.), Hospice care on the international scene. New York: Springer.


Hammoud, M. M., & Siblani, M. K. (2003). Care of Arab Americans and American Muslims. In J. Bigby (Ed.), Cross-cultural medicine (pp. 161-194). Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.


Hammoud, M. M., White C. B., & Fetters, M. D. (2005). Opening cultural doors: Providing culturally sensitive healthcare to Arab American and American Muslim patients. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 193(4), 1307-1311.


Harfouche, J. K. (1981). The evil eye and infant health in Lebanon. In A. Dunde (Ed.), The evil eye: A folklore casebook (pp. 86-106). New York: Garland.


Harrison, A. (1991a). Arabic pain words. Pain, 32(2), 239-250.


Harrison, A. (1991b). Childbirth in Kuwait: The experiences of three groups of Arab mothers. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 6(8), 466-475.


Harrison, A., Al-Saadi, A. M. H., Al-Kaabi, A. S. O., Al-Kaabi, M. R. S., et al. (1997). Should doctors inform terminally ill patients? The opinions of nationals and doctors in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Medical Ethics, 23(2), 101-107.

Hasna, F. (2003). Islam, social traditions, and family planning. Social Policy & Administration, 37(2), 181-197.
Hassan, R. (1995). Women in Islam: Qur'anic ideals versus Muslim realities. Planned Parenthood Challenges, (2), 5-9.

Hattar-Pollara, M. (2003). Arab Americans. In P. St. Hill, J. Lipson, & A. I. Meleis (Eds.), Caring for women cross-culturally (pp. 45-62). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.


Hattar-Pollara, M., & Meleis, A. I. (1995). The stress of immigration and the daily lived experiences of Jordanian immigrant women in the United States. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 17(5), 521-539.


Health Care Providers' Handbook on Muslim Patients. (1996). Guide to needs, preferences and considerations that need to be taken into account when caring for Muslim patients. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from

Hessini, L. (2007). Abortion and Islam: Policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 15(29), 75-84.

Hjelm, K., Bard, K., Nyberg, P., & Aplqvist, J. (2003). Religious and cultural distance in beliefs about health and illness in women with diabetes mellitus of different origin living in Sweden. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(6), 627-643.


Hjelm, K., Bard, K., Nyberg, P., & Aplqvist, J. (2005). Beliefs about health and diabetes in men of different ethnic origin. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(1), 47-59.

Hodge, D.R. & Nadir, A. (2008). Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: Modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets. Social Work, 53(1), 31-41. 
Hodge, D.R. (2005). Social work and the house of Islam: Orientating practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States.  Social Work, 50(2), 162-173.

Hojat, M., Shapurian, R., Nayerahmadi, H., Farzaneh, M., Foroughi, D., Parsi, M., & Azizi, M. (1999). Premarital sexual, child rearing, and family attitudes of Iranian men and women in the United States and in Iran. The Journal of Psychology, 133(1), 19-31.

Hondius, A.J.K., van Willigen, L.M., et al. (2000). Health problems among Latin-American and Middle-Eastern refugees in the Netherlands: Relations with violence exposure and ongoing sociopsychological strain. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(4), 619-634.

Hundt, G. L., Beckerleg, S., Kassem, F., Abu-Jafar, A. M., et al. (2000). Women's health custom made: Building on the 40 days postpartum for Arab women. Health Care for Women International, 21(6), 529-542.

Hussain, A. (2001). Islamic beliefs in mental health. Mental Health Nursing, 21(2), 6-7.

Hutchinson, M. K., & Baqi-Aziz, M. (1994). Nursing care of the child bearing Muslim family. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 23(9), 767-771.


Ide, B. A., & Sanli, T. (1992). Health beliefs and behavior of Saudi women. Women & Health, 19(1), 97-113.


Inhorn, M. C., & Fakih, M. H. (2006). Arab Americans, African Americans, and infertility: Barriers to reproduction and medical care. Fertility and Sterility, 85(4), 844-852.

Inhorn, M.C. & Sargent, C.F. (2006). Introduction to medical anthropology in the Muslim world.  Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(1), 1-11. 
Institute for Muslim Mental Health. (2007). Professional Association. Links to information about Muslim mental health. Retrieved July 23, 2008, from
Irfan, S. (2008). Childrearing practices among South Asian Muslims in Britain: The cultural context of physical punishment. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 28(1), 147-161.  

Islam, S. M., & Johnson, C. A. (2003). Correlates of smoking behavior among Muslim Arab-American adolescents. Ethnicity and Health, 8(4), 319-337.


Islamic Council of Queensland. (1996). Health care providers' handbook on Muslim patients. Sunnybank, Queensland, Australia: Author.

Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America - IFANCA. (2008). Halal food certification. This site is a homepage that provides information for the general public, industry, and consumers. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from
Jaber, L. A. (2003). Barriers and strategies for research in Arab Americans. Diabetes Care, 26(2), 514-515.
Jaber, L. A., Brown, M. B., Hammad, A., Zhu, Q., & Herman, W. H. (2003). Lack of acculturation is a risk factor for diabetes in Arab immigrants in the U.S. Diabetes Care, 26(7), 2010-2014.
Jafari, M. (1993). Counseling values and objectives: A comparison of Western and Islamic perspectives. American Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26, 225-233.
Javaheri, F. (2006). Prayer healing: An experiential description of Iranian prayer healing. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(2), 171-182
Jochelson, T., Hua, M., & Rissel, C. (2003). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of caregivers regarding children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia. Ethnicity and Health, 8(4), 339-351
Johnson, C. P. (2001). An Islamic understanding of health care: What can it teach us? Accident and Emergency Nursing, 9(1), 38-45.
Johnson-Hanks, J. (2006). On the politics and practice of Muslim fertility: Comparative evidence from West Africa. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(1), 12-30.
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