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Culturally Competent Care For the Burmese

 Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S.,M.L.S.

Armour-Hileman, V. (2002). Singing to the dead: A missioner's life among refugees from Burma. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. (2005). The Darkness we see: torture in Burma's interrogation centers and prisons. (124 pages). Retrieved May 20, 2008, from   


Ba-Thike, K. (1997). Abortion: A public health problem in Myanmar. Reproductive Health Matters, 5(9), 94-100.


Back Pack Health Worker Team. (n.d.) Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from  (85 pages)

Bamforth, V., Lanjouw, S., & Mortimer, G. (2000). Conflict and displacement in Karenni: The need for considered responses. From the Burma Ethnic Research Group. (128 pages). Retrieved December 15, 2008 from
Barnes, D. (Ed.). (2003). An assessment of the mental health beliefs and needs of refugees from Burma. In Asylum seekers and refugees in Australia: Issues of mental health and wellbeing. Ch. 7, pp. 148-162. New South Whales: Parramatta.
BBC News. (2008). Asia-Pacific country profile: Burma. Retrieved November 25, 2008 from
Belak, B. (2002). Social roles and gender stereotypes. In Gathering strength: Women from Burma and their rights, (pp. 33-55). Retrieved October 7, 2008, from

Belton, S. (2007). Borders of fertility: Unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Burmese women migrating to Thailand. Health Care for Women International, 28(4), 419-433.


Belton, S., & Whittaker, A. (2007). Kathy Pan, sticks and pummeling: Techniques used to induce abortion by Burmese women on the Thai border. Social Science & Medicine, 65(7), 1512-1523.


Beyrer C, Suwanvanichkij V, Mullany LC, Richards AK, Franck N, et al. (2006). Responding to AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice. PLoS Med 3(10): e393 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030393


Bodeker, G., Neumann, C., Lall, P., & Oo, Z. M. (2005). Traditional medicine use and healthworker training in a refugee setting at the Thai-Burma border. Journal of Refugee Studies, 18(1), 76-89.


Boisvert, M. (2000). A socio-cultural analysis of the Burmese Shin pyu ceremony. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 21(2), 203-211.


Bowles, E. (1998, August). From village to camp: Refugee camp life transition on the Thailand-Burma border. Forced Migration Review, 2, 11-14.

The Brackett Refugee Education Fund. (2008). BREF is a public charity that helps Burmese refugees gain access to education. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from

Bridging Refugee Youth & Chidren's Services. (2007). Burmese refugees- highlighted resources. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from


Bridging Refugree Youth & Children's Services. (2007). BRYCS parenting conversations: Klee Thoo, a Burmese Karen father. Retrieved May 20, 2008 from

Burling, R. (1965). Burmese kinship terminology. American Anthropologist, 67(suppl 1), 106-117.
Burmese Border Consortium. (2003). Reclaiming the right to rice: Food security and internal displacement in Eastern Burma. (96 pages). Retrieved June 5, 2008 from 

Cardozo, B. L., Talley, L., Burton, A., & Crawford, C. (2004). Karenni refugees living in Thai-Burmese border camps: Traumatic experiences, mental health outcomes, and social functioning. Social Science & Medicine, 58,(12): 2637-2644.


Center for Applied Linguistics. (2007). Refugees from Burma: Their backgrounds and refugee experiences. Retrieved May 20, 2008 from  (88 pages)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. (2007). Global migration and quarantine - Burmese refugees. Links to Burmese TB follow-up letter and instructions. Retrieved October 7, 2008, from

Cheah, J. (2002). Cultural identity and Burmese American Buddhists. Peace Review, 14(4), 415-419.

Checchi, F., Elder, G., Schafer, M., Drouhin, E., & Legros, D. (2003). Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population. The Lancet, 362, 74-75.
Chelala, C. (1998). Burma: A country's health in crisis. The Lancet, 352, 556.

Chit, T. M., Kyi, H., & Thwin, A. (2003). Mothers' beliefs and attitudes towards child weight, child feeding and related practices in Myanmar. Nutrition and Health, 17(3), 231-254.

CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. (2008). The world factbook - Burma. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from
Countries and their Cultures. (2007). Karens. Retrieved October 7, 2008 from
CultureGrams World Edition. (2008). Union of Myanmar (Burma). (4 pages). Retrieved December 1, 2008 from
Delang, C.O. (2003). Living at the edge of Thai society: The Karen in the highlands of Northern Thailand. New York: Routledge.

Drum Publication Group. (n.d.). Publishes educational materials in Burmese, English and Sgaw Karen languages and distributes them free of charge to schools, libraries and centers of education. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from


Dudley, S. (1999). "Traditional" culture and refugee welfare in north-west Thailand. Forced Migration Review, 6(Dec.), 5-8.

Ekeh, C. & Smith, M. (2007). Minority rights group international briefing papers: Minorities in Burma. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from

Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of medical anthropology health and illness in the world's cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Ethnomed. (2007). Evaluation of Tuberculosis Program Services for Burmese refugees in Thailand resettling to the United States. (58 pages). Retrieved October 7, 2008, from 
Ewers-Anderson, K. (1981). Two indigenous Karen religious denominations. Folk, 23, 251-261. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from

Human Rights Watch. (1998). Unwanted and Unprotected: Burmese Refugees in Thailand. 10(6). Retrieved February 5, 2009 from

International Rescue Committee - IRC. (2006). Refugee children and youth backgrounders. (55 pages). Retrieved October 7, 2008 from
Karen Human Rights Group. (2006). Dignity in the shadow of oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen women under militarisation. (92 pages). Retrieved August 26, 2008 from
Karen Women's Organization. (2006). KWO Annual report: January 2005 - March 2006. (32 pages). Retrieved March 24, 2009 from

Kemmer, T. M., Bovill, M. E., Kongsomboon, W., Hansch, S. J., et al. (2003). Iron deficiency is unacceptably high in refugee children from Burma. Journal of Nutrition, 133(12), 4143-4149.

Kemmer, T.M. (1999). Field surveys to assess the nutritional status of Burmese refugees in Thailand: Basis for recommendations for humanitarian programs.  American Diabetic Association Foundation (ADAF). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from

Kemp. C. (2006) Burmese: Health beliefs and practices. Refugee Health ~ Immigrant Health deals with issues in refugee health and resettlement. Retrieved October 22, 2008 from

Kon Nnvan, U. (1983). Angalip '-mran' ma a nok' tuin'" che" panna abhidan' = The English-Burmese medical dictionary. Ran' kun': Mran' ma Ca pe tuik'.

Lee, T. J., Mullany, L. C., Richards, A. K., Kuiper, H. K., et al. (2006). Mortality rates in conflict zones in Karen, Karenni, and Mon states in eastern Burma. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 11(7), 1119-1127.


Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service. (n.d.) Burmese Refugees of Interest to LIRS in India & Thailand. (16 pages). Retrieved May 20, 2008 from   


Luxemburger, C., White, N. J., Kuile, F., Singh, H. M., et al. (2003). Beri-beri: The major cause of infant mortality in Karen refugees. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97, 251-255.

MacArthur, J.R., Dudley, S., & Williams, H.A. (2001). Approaches to facilitating health care acceptance: A case sample from Karenni refugees. National Association for the Practice of Anthropology Bulletin, 21(1), 56-69.
MacLachlan, H. (2006). The don dance: An expression of Karen nationalism. Voices, 32(3-4), 26-32.
Marshall, H.I. (1997). The Karen people of Burma: A study in anthropology and ethnology. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus.
Mekong. (2008). Pwo Karen profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from
Mekong. (2008). Sgaw Karen profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from

Metro, R. (2006, December). Developing history curricula to support mult-ethnic civil society among Burmese refugees and migrants. (32 pages). Retrieved May 20, 2008 from 


Minnesota Department of Health. (2007). Karen Refugees from Burma. (15 pages). Retrieved September 30, 2008, from


Mullany, L. C., Maung, C., & Beyrer, C. (2003). HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Burmese migrant factory workers in Tak province, Thailand. AIDS care, 15(1), 63-70.

Muller, H.J. (2002). Women in urban Burma: Social issues and political dilemmas. Women's Studies International Forum, 17(6), 609-620.

National Health and Education Committee (Burma). (2006). Health system development seminar. (99 pages). Retrieved October 7, 2008 from     

Neiman, A., Soh, E., & Sutan, P. (2008). Karen: Karen cultural profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from
Neumann, C. (2003).  Amulets and tears. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9(1), 21-23.

Neumann, C. (2003). Vanishing into the hills of Burma: Traditional Karen medicine. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9(4), 461-465.

New York State Department of Health. (2010).  Working with Refugees from Burma to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning.
Nolan, C.M., Schecter, G., & Mase, S.R. (2007). Evaluation of tuberculosis program services for Burmese refugees in Thailand resettling to the United States. (58 pages). Retrieved October 23, 2008 from

Norsworthy, K. L., & Khunankaew, O. (2004). Women of Burma speak out: Workshops to deconstruct gender-based violence and build systems of peace and justice. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 29(3), 259-283.

Norwegian Refugee Council/Global IDP Project. (2003). Profile of internal displacement: Myanmar(Burma). (168 pages). Retrieved June 5, 2008 from (168 pages).

The Office of Global Health Affairs. (2004). Background on Potential Health Issues for Burmese Refugees by Office of Global Health Affairs. (20 pages). Retrieved May 20, 2008 from  


Online Burma/Myanmar Library. (2007). Burmese Border Guidelines. (300 pages). Retrieved September 30, 2008, from (168 pages).
Also available in Burmese from (426 pages). 


Queensland Government. (n.d.) Karen-Burmese Refugees: An orientation for health workers and volunteers. (13 pages). Retrieved Febraury 2, 2009 from

Refugees International. (2006). Ending the waiting game: Strategies for responding to internally displaced people in Burma. (52 pages). Retrieved October 7, 2008 from

Refugees International. (2008). Burma. Retrieved May 20, 2008 from


Rhode Island Department of Health. (n.d.) Burmese Health Sheet. Retrieved  May 20, 2008 from


Sarojini, Foong, M. S., Pin, C. C., Nge, T. T., et al. (2005). The expectations and experiences of Myanmar nursing aides working in an inpatient hospice in Singapore. Singapore Nursing Journal, 32(3), 44-49.


Schuftan, C., van der Veen, A., Baquet, V., & Winichagoon, P. (2004, April). Evaluation of echo-funded nutrition and food aid activities for Burmese refugees in Thailand. Retrieved May 20, 2008 from

SHIELD Project. (2007). Request for applications (RFA). (3 pages). Retrieved March 24, 2009 from

Skidmore, M. (2002). Menstrual madness: Women's health and well-being in urban Burma. Women Health, 35(4), 81-99.


Skidmore, M. (2003). Darker than midnight: Fear, vulnerability, and terror making in urban Burma (Myanmar). American Ethnologist, 30(1), 5-21.


Soe, S., & Mu, M. A. (n.d.). Myanmar (Union of Burma). In C. E. D'Avanzo (Ed.) Pocket guide to cultural health assessment (pp.545-551). St. Louis: Mosby.

South, A. (2007). Karen nationalist communities: The "problem" of diversity. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 29(1), 55-76.

Spiro, M. E. (1967). Burmese Supernaturalism. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Spiro, M. E. (1977). Kinship and Marriage in Burma- A Cultural and Psychodynamic Analysis. California: University of California Press.


Stover, E., Suwanvanichkij, V., Moss, A., Tuller, D., Lee, T.J., Whichard, E., Shigekane, R., Beyrer, C., & Mathieson, D.S. (2007). The gathering storm: Infectious disease and human rights in Burma. (183 pages). Retrieved December 15, 2008 from


Thailand Burma Border Consortium. (n.d.). Reports. Retrieved May 20, 2008 from

Thaindian News. (2007). Cornell team seeks to protect Myanmar's ethnic Karen culture, language. Retrieved June 5, 2008 from cornell-team-seeks-to-protect-myanmars-ethnic-karen-culture-language_10010079.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - HHS. (2008). Background on potential health issues for Burmese refugees. Retrieved August 26, 2008 from

U.S. Department of State. (2007). Burma: Country reports on human rights practices 2006. Retrieved Febraury 3, 2009 from

U.S. Department of State. (2008). Bureau of East Asian and Pacific affairs - Background note: Burma. Retrieved October 7, 2008 from
United States Agency for International Development - USAID. (2004). Thailand/Burma Health and Education Activities Review: Education Sector Final Report. (76 pages). Retrieved July 31, 2008 from

University of North Caroline at Chapel Hill. (2007). People from Burma living in Chapel Hill and Carrboro. (154 pages). Retrieved February 5, 2009 from 

Vemuri, S. (2000). Myanmar: A cultural profile. University of Toronto: The Anti-Racism, Multiculturalism, and Native Issues (AMNI) Centre, Faculty of Social Work.
Vogler, P. (2006). New issues in refugee research - In the absence of the humanitarian gaze: Refugee camps after dark. (25 pages). Retrieved October 7, 2008, from

Watanabe, Y. (n.d.) Library services for displaced people: Activities in Burmese refugee camps. Retrieved November 5, 2007, from

Way, R.T. (1985). Burmese culture, personality, and mental health. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 19(3), 275-282.
Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. (2004). Thai-Burma border assessment annotated bibliography. Refugees living in camps: studies and reports. (45 pages). Retrieved July 3, 2008 from

Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. (2006). Thai-Burma border reproductive health assessment. (96 pages). Retrieved May 20, 2008 from

World Culture Encyclopedia. (2007). Karen marriage and family. Retrieved August 26, 2008 from

World Health Organization. (2005). Country profile: Myanmar. Retrieved February 5, 2009 from


The World-Wide Web Virtual Library. (n.d.). Online Burma/Myanmar Library. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from


Yin, S. M. (2007). Cultureshock! a survival guide to customs and etiquette Myanmar. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Editions.

©Jacquelyn Coughlan, May 2011 ( citations)