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Culturally Competent Healthcare for Sudanese

 Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Ahmed, A. M., Hussein, A., Kheir, M. M., & Ahmed, N. H. (2001).  Impact of diabetes mellitus on Sudanese women. Practical Diabetes International, 18(4), 115-118.


Ahmed, I. M., Bremer, J. J., Magzoub, M. M. E., & Nouri, A. M. H.  (1999).  Characteristics of visitors to traditional healers in central Sudan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 5(1), 79-85.


Ahmed, I. S., Eltom, A. R., Karrar, Z. A., & Gibril, A. R. (1994). Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community. East African Medical Journal, 71(11), 716-719.


Almroth-Berggren, V., Almroth, L, Hassanein, O. M., et al.  (2001).  Re-infibulation among women in a rural area in central Sudan. Health Care for Women International, 22(8), 711-722.


AMEP (Adult Migrant English Programme) Research Center. (2003). Fact sheet - Sudan. (4 pages). Retrieved May 14, 2008, from 

AMEP (Adult Migrant English Programme) Research Center. (2007). Teaching strategies - 8 interactive style: Supporting Dinka background speakers from southern Sudan. (8 pages). Retrieved September 8, 2008, from

Awadalla, A., Al-Fayez, G., Arikawa, H., & Templer, D. I.  (2002). Adolescent-parent death attitude resemblance in Kuwaiti and Sudanese families.  Journal of Death and Dying, 46(4), 353-359.

Awet, M.D. (2007). NSW (New South Whales) Southern Sudanese youth drug and alcohol issues report. (11 pages). Retrieved October 9, 2008 from

Bates, L., Baird, D., Johnson, D. J., Lee, R. E., et al.  (2005). Sudanese refugee youth in foster care: The "lost boys" in America. Child Welfare, 84(5), 631-648.

BBC News. (2008). Africa country profile: Sudan. Retrieved November 25, 2008 from

Berggren, V., Salam, G. A., Bergstrom, S., Johansson, E., & Edberg, A. (2004). An explorative study of Sudanese midwives' motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth. Midwifery, 20(4), 299-311.

Beswick, S. (2001). "If you leave your country you have no life!": Rape, suicide, and violence: The vioces of Ethiopian, Somali, and Sudanese refugees in Kenyan refugee camps. Northeast African Studies, 8(3), 69-98.

Boddy, J.  (1989). Wombs and alien spirits: Women, men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan. London: The University of Wisconsin Press.


Boddy, J.  (1995). Managing tradition: 'Superstition' and the making of national identity among Sudanese women refugees. In W. James (Ed.), The Pursuit of Certainty: Religious and Cultural Formulations (pp. 15-44).

Boston Healing Landscape Project. (2006). Country guide - Sudan. Retrieved October 9, 2008 from

Bouchard, L. D. (1996). A note on the Nuer. Hastings Center Report, 26(1), 15-16.


Bouchier, V. A. (1984).  Maternity care in the Sudd, southern Sudan. Tropical Doctor, 14(1), 32-33.


Chrisler, J. C., & Zittel, C. B.  (1998). Menarche stories: Reminiscences of college students from Lithuania, Malaysia, Sudan, and the United States. Health Care Women International, 19(4), 303-312.

CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. (2008). The world factbook - Sudan. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from

Coker, E. M. (2004). "Traveling pains": Embodied metaphors of suffering among Southern Sudanese refugees in Cairo. Culture, medicine and psychiatry, 28(1), 15-39.

Cultural Orientation Research Center. (2008). Refugees from Sudan. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from
De Wolf, I.J. (1996). On figuring and modeling Nuer-Dinka differences. Current Anthropology, 37(4), 670.

Deng, F. M. (1998). The cow and the thing called 'what': Dinka cultural perspectives on wealth and poverty. Journal of International Affairs, 52(1), 101-130.

Edward, J.K. (2007). Sudanese women refugees: Transformations and future imaginings. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Edwards, P.C., Levering, N., Wetzel, E., & Saini, T. (2008). Extirpation of the primary canine tooth follicles: A form of infant oral mutilation. Journal of the American Dental Association, 139(4), 442-450. 

el Bushra, H. M., Salih, M. A., Satti, S. A., Ahmed Mel, F., & Kamil, I. A. (1994). Infant-feeding practices in urban and rural communities of the Sudan. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 46(5), 309-312.


El Dareer, A. (1983). Attitudes of Sudanese people to the practice of female circumcision. International Journal of Epidemiology, 12(2), 138-144.


El-Tom, A. O . (1996). Traditional practices and perinatal health in a Sudanese village. Curare, 9, 7-14.

Elmubarak, E., Bromfield, E., & Bovell-Benjamin, A.C. (2005). Focused interviews with Sudanese-Americans: Perceptions about diet, nutrition, and cancer. Preventive Medicine, 40(5), 502-509.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1951). Kinship and marriage among the Nuer. Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1974). Nuer religion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Furuta, M. (2008). Factors affecting women's health-related behaviors and safe motherhood: A qualitative study from a refugee camp in Eastern Sudan. Health Care for Women International, 29(8), 884-905.

Geltman, P. L., Grant-Knight, W., Mehta, S. D., Lloyd-Travaglini, C., Lustig, S., Landgraf, J. M., et al. (2005). The "lost boys of Sudan": Functional and behavioral health of unaccompanied refugee minors re-settled in the United States. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(6), 585-591.

Gordon, D. (1991). Female circumcision and genital operations in Egypt and Sudan: A dilemma for medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(1), 3-14.

Hassan, A. A. R. (2001). Sudan: Summary of the impact of research on FGM.  Women's International Network News, 27, 41.

Hassan, K. & Kinani, I. (2002). The emigration of Sudanese abroad: Psychological and social reasons and consequences. Journal of Social Affairs, 19(74), 264-240.
Holtzman, J. D. (2000). Nuer journeys, Nuer lives: Sudanese refugees in Minnesota. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Islam, M.M. (2001). Female circumcision in Sudan: Future prospects and strategies for eradication. International Family Planning Perspectives, 27(2), 71-76.

Jones, C., Baker, F., & Day, T. (2004). From healing rituals to music therapy: Bridging the cultural divide between therapist young Sudanese refugees. Arts in Psychotherapy, 31(2), 89-100.

Keller, E.M. & Brennan, P.K. (2007). Cultural considerations and challenges to service delivery for Sudanese victims of domestic violence: Insights from service providers and actors in the criminal justice system. International Review of Victimology, 14, 115-141.

Kemp, C., & Rasbridge, L. A. (2001). Culture and the end of life: East African Cultures, part I-Sudan. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 3, 110-112.


Khalifa, M. A. (1988).  Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning. Studies in Family Planning, 19(4), 236-243.

Khawaja, N.G., White, K.M., Schweitzer, R., & Greenslade, J. (2008). Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: A qualitative approach. Journal of Transcultural Psychiatry, 45(3), 489-512. 
Kokanovic, R., Farida, T., Rapley, M., & O'Ferrall, I. (2002). Cultural construction of sadness-experiences of Ethiopian and Sudanese refugees in Western Australia. Brisbane, Australia: International Sociological Association (ISA).
Labott, E. (2007). Google Earth maps out Darfur atrocities. Retrieved May 14, 2008 from
Laverentz, M.L., Cox, C.C., & Jordan, M. (1999). The Nuer Nutrition Education Program: Breaking down cultural barriers. Health Care for Women International, 20(6), 593-601.
Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. (2004). Country profile: Sudan. (16 pages). Retrieved November 26, 2008 from

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in the Sudan. The Journal of Sex Research, 26, 375-392.


Lustig, S. L., Weine, S. M., Saxe, G. N., & Beardslee, W. R. (2004). Testimonial psychotherapy for adolescent refugees: A case series. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(1), 31-45.

Magied, A.A. and S.M. Ahmed. (2003). Sudan: Sexual experiences and psychosexual effect of FGM. Women's International Network News, 29(3), 30.
Migrant Information Centre of Eastern Melbourne Australia. (n.d.). South Sudanese profile. (19 pages). Retrieved October 9, 2008 from

Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Klaschik, C., et al. (2004). A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling , and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(4), 579-587.


Power, D. V., & Shandy, D. J. (1998). Sudanese refugees in a Minnesota family practice clinic. Family Medicine, 30(3), 185-189.


Refugee Council. (2005). A guide to Sudanese cultural and social norms. (26 pages). Retrieved October 8, 2008 from

Refugee Health Research Centre. (n.d.). Sudan bibliography. (7 pages). Retrieved October 20, 2008 from
Safe, A.A. (2005). Traditional Sudanese medicine: Concepts, methods, and techniques. Retrieved October 15, 2008 from
Safi, A.A. (2007). Traditional Sudanese medicine: A primer for health care providers, researchers, and students. Khartoum, Sudan: AZZA House.

Schwabe, C. W., & Kuojok, I. M. (1981). Practices and beliefs of the traditional Dinka healer in relation to provision of modern medical and veterinary services for the Southern Sudan. Human Organization, 40(3), 231-238.


Schweitzer R., Melville F., Steel Z., & Lacherez, P. (2006).  Trauma, post-migration living difficulties, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment in resettled Sudanese refugees.  Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(2), 179-187.

Schweitzer, R., Greenslade, J., & Kagee, A. (2007). Coping and resilience in refugees from the Sudan: A narrative account. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(3), 282-288.

Shandy, D. J. (2001). Perils and possibilites of Nuer refugee migration to the United States (Sudan).  (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2001). Retrieved May 22, 2008 from


Sudan: Where war never ends. (2005, February 7). People, 63(5), 66.


Sudanese Online Research Association - SORA. (2004). Retrieved May 20, 2008, from


Tilbury, F., Clark, S., & O’Ferrall, I. (2004). Listening to diverse voices: Multicultural mental health promotion research project-Eritrean, Ethiopian, Somali, and Sudanese communities in Western Australia. East Metropolitan Health Unit and Murdoch University, Perth. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from

Tilbury, F., Slee, R., Clark, S., et al. (2004). "Listening to diverse voices": Understandings and experiences of, and interventions for, depression among East African migrants. Synergy (AUST), 2(5-6), 24-25. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from

Tompkins, M. (2006). HIV Education needs among Sudanese immigrants and refugees in the Midwestern United States. AIDS & Behavior, 10(3), 319-323.

Tompkins, M., Smith, L., Jones, K., & Swindells, S. (2006). HIV education needs among Sudanese immigrants and refugees in the Midwest United States. AIDS and Behavior, 10(3), 319-323.  
Williams, L. and T. Sobieszczyk. (1997). Attitudes surrounding the continuation of female circumcision in the Sudan: Passing the tradition to the next generation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(4), 966-981.

Willis, M. S., & Hitchcock, R. K. (2003). Anthropologists & Sudanese refugees: Cultural exchanges in the heartland. Practicing Anthropology, 25, 3-8.


Willis, M. S., & Nkwocha, O. (2006). Health and related factors for Sudanese refugees in Nebraska. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 8(1), 19-33.


Willis, M. S., Schacht, R. N., & Toothaker, R. (2005). Anterior dental extractions among Dinka and Nuer refugees in the United States: A case series. Special Care Dentistry, 25(4), 193-198.

Willis, M.S. & Buck, J.S. (2007). From Sudan to Nebraska: Dinka and Nuer refugee diet dilemmas. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 39(5), 273-280.
Willis, M.S., Harris, L.E., & Hergenrader, P.J. (2008). On traditional dental extraction: Case reports from Dinka and Nuer en route to restoration. British Dental Journal, 204(3), 121-124.

Wilson, D., & Mehryar, A. (1991). The role of AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices research in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS, 5 (Suppl. 1),  S177-S181.


Younis, Y. O. (1978). Attitudes of Sudanese urban and rural population to mental illness. Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 81(12), 248-251.

©Jacquelyn Coughlan, March 2009 ( citations)