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Cultural Profiles

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Adult Migrant English Program - AMEP Research Centre. (2008). Fact sheets by subject from Macquarie University, Australia. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from http://www.ameprc.mq.edu.au/resources/amep_fact_sheets

AFRICA: Africa World Press Guide. (1998). WorldViews: Belief systems: Indigenous, Islamic, Christian. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://worldviews.igc.org/awpguide

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2004). Transcultural aspects of perinatal health care. United States: National Perinatal Association.
Andrews, D. J. (1995). Cultural religious ethnic reference manual for health care providers. Winston-Salem, NC: JAMARDA Resources.
Aydingun, A., Balim Harding, C., Hoover, M., Kuznetsov, I., & Swerdlow, S. (2006). Meskhetian Turks: An introduction to their history, culture, and resettlement experiences. (44 pages). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.cal.org/CO/pdffiles/mturks.pdf

Asgary R, Segar N.   Barriers to Health Care Access among Refugee Asylum Seekers. Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved [serial online]. May 2011;22(2):506-522.  Available from: CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Ipswich, MA. 

BBC - Religion & Ethics. (n.d.). Religions - Featured religions and beliefs. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/

BBC News/Country Profiles. (2008). Country profile: Burundi. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/africa/country_profiles/1068873.stm

BBC. (2008). Country profiles. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profiles/default.stm
Beliefnet. (2007). Faiths & Practices. This site provides basic information to search by religion. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.beliefnet.com/index/index_10000.html
Benson, S. (2003). The Hispanic-American almanac: A reference work on Hispanics in the United States. Detriot, MI: Gale.
Bigby, J. (2003). Cross-cultural medicine. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.
Borough of Telford & Wrekin. (n.d.) Understanding Ethnic Communities. Working with: African, African-Caribbean, Chinese, and South-Asian communities. (16 pages). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.telford.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/
Boston Healing Landscape Project. (2007). Resource: Religious and cultural links. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.bu.edu/bhlp/pages/resources/religious_cultural/index.htm
Boston Healing Landscape Project. (2008). The multicultural country guide. Has country specific information developed for Bosnia, Croatia, Cape Verde, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Somalia, Sudan, Burma, and Vietnam. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://www.bu.edu/bhlp/pages/country_index/africa/sudan/sudan_index.htm 
Bridging Youth and Refugee Services - BRYCS. (2007). Ethnic Groups. Provides links to information from BRYCS archive about Burmese, Burundians, Hmong, Iraqi, Somali Bantu, and Sudanese Youth. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://www.brycs.org/brycs_archive.htm#ETHNIC_GROUPS

CAL - The Center for Applied Linguistics. (2008). This website contains bilingual phrasebooks, health resources guides, and provides cultural orientation resources and Cultural Profiles, Guidebooks for Refugees and Phrase Books.CAL is also home to the National Center for ESL Literacy Education and the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE) which identifies and develops effective educational practices for linguistic and cultural minority students. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from http://www.cal.org


California State University Stanislaus. (2003). Multicultural Education and Ethnic Groups: Selected Internet Sources. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.library.csustan.edu/lboyer/multicultural/main.htm


Carleton University. (n.d.). Publications: Cultural profiles. Retrieved October 30, 2008 from http://www.carleton.ca/rrdr/publications.html



Center for Cross-Cultural Health. (n.d.). The Center for Cross-Cultural Health has created profiles of some of the larger cultural groups in Minnesota. The profiles provide health care providers with background information when assisting and treating different cultural groups. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.crosshealth.com


Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange - CIRRIE. (2008). The Rehabilitation Provider's Guide to Cultures of the Foreign-Born. Provides information on cultural perspectives for immigrants from several countries living in the United States. From the University of Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/monographs/index.html

Champlain Valley Area Health Education Center. (2007). Cultural competency for health care providers. Includes profiles of Congolese, Somali, Sudanese, Bosnian, Meskhetian Turks, and Vietnamese. (75 pages). Retrieved December 8, 2008 from http://www.cvahec.org/documents/CulturalComptencyforHeatlhCareProviders2007_11.8.07.pdf
CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. (2008). The world factbook (select a country). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (n.d.) Cultural Profiles Project. This site provides cultural profiles including lifestyles and customs for several countries. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/
Cloutier, B. (n.d.). People of South East Asia. Retrieved October 16, 2008 from http://berclo.net/page00/00en-sea-people.html
Countries and Their Cultures. (2007). Culture of Burma. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Burma.html
Countries and Their Cultures. (2007). Culture of Afghanistan. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Afghanistan.html

Countries and Their Cultures. (2007). Culture of Iraq. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://everyculture.com/Ge-It/Iraq.html


Countries and Their Cultures. (2007). Culture of Burundi. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Burundi.html


Cross Cultural Health Care Program - CCHCP. (n.d.). Northwest Resource Center on CLAS and Health Disparities. Retrieved Fenraury 26, 2009 from http://www.xculture.org/NWRCwelcome.php

Cultural Orientation Research Center - COR. (2008). Cultural Orientation Highlights and Cultural Orientation Research and Programs.  This site links to refugee backgrounds on The Bhutanese in Nepal, The Kunama, The 1972 Burundians, & The Banyamulenge Tutsi and culture profiles on the Burmese, Meskhetian Turks, Liberians, Muslims, Hmong, Somali, Somali-Bantu, Bosnian, Haitian, Iraqi, Iraqi Kurds, and Afghans. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.cal.org/co/publications/
D'Avanzo, C. E., & Geissler, E. M. (2003). Pocket guide to cultural health assessment (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Diabetes Australia & Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, Inc. - AFIC. (2004). Diabetes and fasting for Muslims A resource for health professionals. (5 pages). Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/multilingualdiabetes/Events/Ramadan2006.pdf
Diversity Health Institute Clearinghouse (Australia). (2006). Congolese community profile. (24 pages). Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/delivering-assistance/government-programs/
Diversity Health Institute Clearinghouse (Australia). (2007). Bhutanese community profile. (28 pages). Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/delivering-assistance/government-programs
Diversity Health Institute Clearinghouse (Australia). (n.d.). Resources. Site provides fact sheets on Eritea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and Sudan. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/Resources.htm (then search: African community).
Dresser, N. (2006). Come as you aren't!: Feeling at home with multicultural celebrations. Lanham, MD: M. Evans. 

Eigo, T. (2006). Multicultural America: A-Br: Afghan Americans. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.everyculture.com/multi/A-Br/Afghan-Americans.html


Ethnic American - University of Buffalo. (n.d.). A health care provider's primer for Arab and Arab Americans, provides links to health resources. Retrieved June 18, 2008 from, http://wings.buffalo.edu/smbs/ethnicamerican/people/arab_american.shmtl


Ethnic American - University of Buffalo. (n.d.). Patient Education. Provides links to patient education for several ethnic groups. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/ethnicamerican/communication/patient_education.shtml


Ethnicity Online. (2003). Cultural awareness in healthcare: Ethnic groups. This section contains links to information about several ethnic/religious groups, including summaries of their beliefs and customs, along with healthcare-related advice. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.ethnicityonline.net/ethnic_groups.htm

ethnoDent. (n.d.). Bridging sociocultural boundaries in children's oral health. Homepage. Provides Korean, Mexican, Yup'ik, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Romanian cultural profile links. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://depts.washington.edu/nacrohd/

Ethnomed. (1996). Voices of the Arab communities. From the University of Washington Harborview Medical Center. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://ethnomed.org/ethnomed/voices/arab.html


Ethnomed. (2008). Ethnic medicine information from Harborview Medical Center including culture specific pages. Seattle, WA. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://ethnomed.org


European Country of Origin Information Network - ECOI. (n.d.). Collects and structures country resources with a specific focus on the needs of asylum lawyers, professional and volunteer refugee counsels as well as persons deciding on claims for asylum and other forms of international protection. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.ecoi.net

Galanti, G. A. (2004). Caring for Patients from Different Cultures. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Galanti, G.A. (2008). Cultural diversity in healthcare.  Case studies, notes from the field, etc. Retrieved November 16, 2008 from http://www.ggalanti.com/site_map.html
Garoogian, D. (2005). The Asian databook: Detailed statistics and rankings on the Asian and Pacific Islander population, including 23 ethnic backgrounds from Bangladeshi to Vietnamese for 1,883 U.S. counties and cities. Millerton, NY: Grey House publishing.

Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services. (n.d). Ethnic community profiles. Provides examples of approaches taken by various healthcare organizations toward various ethnic communities to better serve their needs. (116 pages). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.nh.gov/oep/programs/refugee/documents/ethnic_community_profiles.pdf

Guarnaccia, P.J., Martinez Pincay, I., Alegria, M., Shrout, P.E., Lewis-Fernandez, R., Canino, G.J. (2007). Assessing diversity among Latinos: Results from NLAAS. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 29(4), 510-534.

Hawaii Community College. (2007). Division of nursing and allied health: Traditional health beliefs student pages. Provides RN pages about pregnancy and childbirth traditions for several ethnic groups. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.hawcc.hawaii.edu/nursing/transcultural.html


Health for Asylum Seekers & Refugees Portal - HARP. (2003). Multi cultural calendars. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.harpweb.org.uk/content.php?section=cultural⊂=c1&con=c1-1

International Rescue Committee - IRC. (2006). Refugee children and youth backgrounders. (55 pages). Retrieved February 24, 2009 from http://www.boiseschools.org/ell/irc.pdf

Islamic Council of Queensland. (1996). Health care providers' handbook on Muslim patients. (17 pages). Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.health.qld.gov.au/

Kellerman, M. (2002). Somalia: A cultural profile. (20 pages). Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/somalia/somalia_eng.pdf
Kemp, C., & Rasbridge, L. (2004). Refugee and immigrant health. Cambridge: University Press.
Kittler, P.G. & Sucher, K.P. (2004). Food and Culture. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth
Kwnitessential Cross-Cultural Solutions. (n.d.). Country profiles - Guides to culture, etiquette, customs, and protocol. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/country-profiles.html
Lao Family Community of Minnesota. (1997). Cultural Competency: Working with the Hmong. (3 pages). Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.laofamily.org/pdfs/
Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. (2005).  A Country Study: Somalia. This site provides links to this book through the library of Congress. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://rs6.loc.gov/frd/cs/sotoc.html
The Library of Congress. (2005). Global gateway: World culture and resources. Retrieved November 3, 2008 from http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/intldlhome.html
Library of Congress. (2008). Country studies. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html
Locke, D. C. (1998). Increasing multicultural understanding: A comprehensive model. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Lutheran Services of Georgia. (2007). Refugee groups - Their history & culture: The Somali-Bantu. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://www.lsga.org/Programs/Refugee/Som_Bantu.htm

Management Sciences for Health - MSH. (n.d.). The provider's guide to quality and culture. An expanded look at some cultural groups. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=5.4.0.htm&module=provider&language=English


Mandaras Publishing. Muller-Kosack. (1999). List of ethnic units. List and map of ethnic units and sub-units listed by three regions of the northern Mandara mountains. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.mandaras.info/EthnicGroups.html

Massachusetts General Hospital. (2002). Massachusetts general cultural competence: World country language locator.  Retrieved October 30, 2008 from http://massgeneral

Massachusetts General Hospital. (2002). Medical interpreter services. Bits of culture: country and culture locator for several ethnic groups. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.massgeneral.org/interpreters/bits.asp

Massachusetts Legal Services Diversity Coalition. (2004). Cultural Resources. Provides articles and information about Brazilian, Cambodian, Haitian Creole, Southeast Asian, and Vietnamese cultures. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.diversitycoalition.org/cultural_resources
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. (2008). Diversity. Provides a bibliography of materials relating to patient, religious, and workplace diversity and specific diversity groups: African Americans, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.mayo.edu/education/nursing-research/diversity.html
Mayo Clinic. (2005). Diversity. Site provides bibliographies about patient, religious, & workplace diversity and African-American, Arab-American, Asian-American, Hispanic-American, & Native-American specific diversity groups. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://www.mayo.edu/education/nursing-research/diversity.html
Mekong. (2008). Pwo Karen profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from http://www.infomekong.com/karenpwo.htm
Mekong. (2008). Sgaw Karen profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from http://www.infomekong.com/karen.htm
Migrant Information Centre (MIC) Eastern Melbourne. (2004). Home and personal care kit: Cultural and religious profiles to assist in providing culturally sensitive care and effective communication. This document provides cultural profiles for Cambodian, Sri Lankan, Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim groups, among others. (84 pages). Retrieved October 15, 2008 from http://www.miceastmelb.com.au/documents/mep/H&Pcarekit.pdf
Neiman, A., Soh, E., & Sutan, P. (2008). Karen: Karen cultural profile. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from http://ethnomed.org/cultures/karen/karen_cp.htm

Office of Global Health Affairs - OGHA. (2008). refugee Health. Provides information about health assessment and care of refugees living in the United States. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.globalhealth.gov/refugee/index.html

Peters-Golden, H. (2002). Culture sketches: Case studies in anthropology, 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Purnell, L. D., & Paulanka, B. J. (2005). Guide to culturally competent health care. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Queensland Government. (2006). Cultural diversity- A guide for health professionals. Provides information on cultural issues for various cultural communities in Queensland, Australia. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.health.qld.gov.au/multicultural/health_workers/cultdiver_guide.asp

Refugee Health Research Centre - RHRC. (n.d.). A profile of Victorian seniors from refugee backgrounds: Health and wellbeing needs and access to aged care health and support services. (72 pages). Retrieved October 2, 2008 from http://www.latrobe.edu.au/rhrc/documents/seniors1.pdf
Refugee Health ~ Immigrant Health. (2006). Deals with issues in refugee health and resettlement of various populations. Retrieved October 22, 2008 from http://bearspace.baylor.edu/Charles_Kemp/www/refugees.htm

Robson, B. (1995). The Iraqis: Their history and culture. Refugee fact sheet series no. 10. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.cal.org/co/iraqi/iraqitxt.html

Salimbene, S. (2000). What language does your patient hurt in? Rockford, Illinois: Inter-Face International, Inc.
Shah, M.A. (2004). Transcultural aspects of perinatal health care: A resource guide. National Perinatal Association. American Academy of Pediatrics: IL.
Somali Bantu Association of San Antonio, TX. (2007). Educational and religious background. This is a homepage that provides links to different aspects of Somali Bantu culture. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://www.sbantuassofsa.org/
South Devon Healthcare NHS Trust. (2005). Handbook on cultural, spiritual and religious beliefs. (30 pages). Retrieved October 22, 2008 from http://www.e-radiography.net/nickspdf/Handbook%20on%20beliefs.pdf

South Devon Healthcare. National Health Service (NHS). (n.d.). Religious, spiritual, pastoral, & cultural care: A guide for staff in providing good religious, spiritual, pastoral, and cultural care. (52 pages). Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.sdhct.nhs.uk/pdf_docs/cultureAndReligionHandbook.pdf

Spector, R.E. (2004). Cultural care: Guides to heritage assessment and health traditions. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Spectrum Migrant Resource Center - SMRC. (2008). Community Profiles. Cross-cultural training to prepare the community of Victoria for immigrant populations. Retrieved June 18, 2008 from, http://www.spectrumvic.org.au/cross_cultural_training/community_profiles
St. Hill, P., Lipson, J., & Meleis, A. I. (Eds.) (2003). Caring for women cross-culturally. Philadephia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.

St. Joseph's Women's Health Centre. (n.d.). Beliefs, values and practices. Similarities and differences in attachment beliefs, values, and practices. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.attachmentacrosscultures.org/beliefs/index.html

Stanford Geriatric Education Center. (n.d.). Diversity, healing and health care: A web-based resource for clinicians who work with patients whose culture and religion is different from their own. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://gasi-ves.org/diversity.htm
Stephenson, C. (2002). KIN (Knowledge of immigrant nationalities of Santa Clara County) - Somalia. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://www.immigrantinfo.org/kin/somalia.htm
Stewart, E.C. & Bennet, M.J. (1991). American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.

Thai, H. C., & Owens, C. W. (2003). Traditional Vietnamese medicine: Historical perspective and current usage. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://ethnomed.org/clin_topics/viet/trad_viet_med.html

Thernstrom, S. (Ed.). (1994). Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups (5th edition). Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 
Thompson Gale, Pubs. (2007). Countries & their cultures. Site provides country profiles on several different countries, search alphabetically. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from http://www.everyculture.com

Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Diversity in Nursing. (2008). Basic concepts and case studies: The Middle Eastern community. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.culturediversity.org/mide.htm

The United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees Agency - UNHCR. (2008). Home. Browse by country - a drop-down box to search profiles and news by country. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from http://www.unhcr.org/home.html

University of Michigan Health Systems. (2008). Program for multicultural health: Cultural competency - Multicultural health generalizations. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.med.umich.edu/multicultural/ccp/mhg.htm

University of Northern Iowa Center for Health Disparities. (n.d.). Muslim Populations. (3 pages). Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.iowahealthdisparities.org/documents/muslim.pdf
University of Northern Iowa College of Business Administration. (n.d.). Cross cultural communication - Welcome to Africa - Somalia. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://www.cba.uni.edu/buscomm/InternationalBusComm/world/africa/somalia/somalia.html

University of Washington Medical Center. (n.d.). Patient and family education services, UWMC. Provides tip sheets for healthcare providers in order to bring about awareness of issues affecting the diverse cultural population. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://depts.washington.edu/pfes/cultureclues.html

Victorian Transcultural Psychiatry Unit - VTPU. (2007). Community profiles: Immigrant and refugee communities in Australia. Retrieved October 15, 2008 from http://www.vtpu.org.au/resources/communityprofiles.php
Virginia Department of Health - VDH. (2003). November 2003 - Eritreans and Ethiopians. Retrieved October 16, 2008 from http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/
Virginia Department of Health -VDH. (2003). Somali Bantu Culture. Somali Bantu health statistics and quick facts. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention

Wintz, S., & Cooper, E. (2003). Learning Module - Cultural and spiritual sensitivity: A quick guide to cultures and spiritual traditions. From the Association of Professional Chaplains. (101 pages). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.professionalchaplains

Wirral Ethnic Health Advisory Group. (2003). Wirral Ethnic Health Strategy 2003. Provides member information and strategic overview. (8 pages). Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.bwwpct.nhs.uk/corporate_information/equality_and_diversity

Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development. (2007). Cultural Websites: Index by culture. Provides cultural links to Afghan, African, Cambodian, Hmong, Laotian, Meskhetian Turks and other groups. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.dwd.state.wi.us/dws/programs/refugees/BureauWide/ethnic_links.htm

World Health Organization - WHO. (2006). Country health system fact sheet 2006 - Sierra Leone. (8 pages). Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://www.afro.who.int/home/countries/fact_sheets/sierraleone.pdf
The World Health Organization - WHO. (2008). Countries (select a country). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from http://www.who.int/countries/en
World Health Organization - WHO. (2008). Toolkits: Communicable diseases toolkits. Provides profiles for Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Horn of Africa, Indonesia, Iraq, Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Tsunami affected areas. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/toolkits/en/
Yehieli, M., & Grey, M. A. (2005). Health Matters: A Pocket Guide for Working with Diverse Cultures and Underserved Populations. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.
Yeo, Gwen (Ed.). Stanford Geriatric Education Center. (2001). Curriculum in ethnogeriatrics: Core curriculum and ethnic specific modules. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger
©Jacquelyn Coughlan, May 2009 ( citations)